Class 12 political science chapter 1 question answer in english

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Challenges of nation building class 12 question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Challenges of nation building

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 1
Chapter Namechallenges of nation building ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for Class 12 political science chapter 1 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science challenges of nation building pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Which among the following statements about the partition is incorrect?

  • (a) Partition of India was the outcome of the “two-nation theory.”
  • (b) Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
  • (c) East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
  • (d) The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.

Answer 1: (d) The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.

Question 2: Match the principles with the instances:

(a) Mapping of boundaries on religious groundsi. Pakistan and Bangladesh
(b) Mapping of boundaries on grounds of different languagesii. India and Pakistan
(c) Demarcating boundaries within a country by geographical zonesiii. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
(d) Demarcating boundaries within a country on administrative and political groundsv. Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand

Answer 2:

(a) Mapping of boundaries on religious groundsii. India and Pakistan
(b) Mapping of boundaries on grounds of different languagesi. Pakistan and Bangladesh
(c) Demarcating boundaries within a country by geographical zonesiv. Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
(d) Demarcating boundaries within a country on administrative and political groundsiii. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh

Question 3: Take a current political map of India (showing outlines of states) and mark the location of the following Princely States.

  • (a) Junagadh
  • (b) Manipur
  • (c) Mysore
  • (d) Gwalior

Answer 3:

Question 4: Here are two opinions –

  • Bismay: “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.”
  • Inderpreet: “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.”

What is your own opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts?

Answer 4: I agree with Bismay’s opinion. The merger of the princely states into the Indian Union was largely a democratic process, as most of the states had already joined the Indian Union before independence. Only a few states were exceptions, and in these cases, the rulers were disregarding the will of the people, who constituted over 90% of the population. All states eventually signed the instruments of accession sent by the central government. Before the merger, governance in the princely states was undemocratic, and the rulers were not willing to grant democratic rights to their people.

However, I also partly agree with Inderpreet. It is true that force was used in the integration of a few princely states like Hyderabad and Junagadh. In these cases, the rulers were Muslim, while the majority of the population, around 80-90%, was Hindu and favored merging with India. Public movements in these states supported the merger. Additionally, geographically, these states were close to Indian territory. The situation in Kashmir was different, as the tribal invasion was instigated by Pakistan, and India’s intervention was at the request of Kashmir’s ruler and representatives. Since then, multiple elections have been held in Kashmir, reflecting the democratic process.

Question 5: Read the following very different statements made in August 1947 :

“Today you have worn on your heads a crown of thorns. The seat of power is a nasty thing. You have to remain ever wakeful on that seat…. you have to be more humble and for bearing…now there will be no end to your being tested.” — M.K Gandhi

“…India will awake to a life of freedom….we step out from the old to the new…we end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity…” — Jawaharlal Nehru

Spell out the agenda of nation building that flows from these two statements. Which one appeals more to you and why?

Answer 5: The agenda of nation-building reflected in Gandhi and Nehru’s statements from August 1947 presents two distinct yet complementary visions. Gandhi’s statement underscores the importance of humility, vigilance, and moral responsibility in leadership. He emphasizes the need for continuous self-examination by those in power to ensure the establishment of a welfare state rooted in Gandhian principles of non-violence, love, truth, cooperation, equality, brotherhood, and communal harmony. This vision advocates for both democratic politics and social and economic justice.

On the other hand, Nehru’s statement highlights the dawn of a new era marked by political freedom and the end of colonial rule. He speaks of leaving behind past misfortunes and embracing new opportunities with enthusiasm. Nehru’s vision focuses on addressing the challenges of poverty, unemployment, and underdevelopment, which require innovative solutions to ensure that even the poorest citizens feel that independent India is their homeland. His agenda promotes liberalism, globalization, and the implementation of a uniform civil code to ensure social and economic justice for all.

Personally, Nehru’s agenda appeals more to me because it presents a clear blueprint for India’s future. He acknowledges the myriad challenges that come with independence and emphasizes the need to accelerate development while addressing social issues. Nehru’s approach balances the need for rapid progress with the imperative to uplift the disadvantaged, offering a pragmatic and inclusive vision for nation-building.

Question 6: What are the reasons being used by Nehru for keeping India secular? Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental? Or were there some prudential reasons as well?

Answer 6: Reasons Nehru Used for Keeping India Secular:

  • Unity and Integrity: Ensuring the unity and integrity of a diverse nation by preventing religious divisions.
  • Democratic Values: Upholding democratic principles and promoting equal treatment of all religions.
  • National Identity: Creating a national identity that transcends religious affiliations.
  • Social Harmony: Fostering social harmony and reducing the potential for religious conflict and violence.
  • Modernization: Emphasizing a modern, progressive outlook for India, moving away from religious dogmas.

Nature of Nehru’s Reasons:

Ethical and Sentimental Reasons:

  • Inclusiveness: Belief in the intrinsic value of secularism for promoting inclusiveness and respect for all religions.
  • Moral Standpoint: Commitment to the moral ideal of treating all citizens equally, regardless of their religious beliefs.

Prudential Reasons:

  • Political Stability: Secularism was seen as essential for maintaining political stability in a diverse country.
  • Economic Development: Promoting secularism was considered vital for economic progress, as it prevented religious conflicts that could disrupt development.
  • International Image: A secular state projected a positive image internationally, aligning India with other democratic nations and aiding diplomatic relations.

In summary, Nehru’s advocacy for a secular India was based on a combination of ethical principles and practical considerations, ensuring both moral integrity and pragmatic governance.

Question 7: Bring out two major differences between the challenge of nation building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of Independence.

Answer 7: The two major differences between eastern (Bengal) and Western (Punjab) regions can be summed up as:

(i) There was no single belt of Muslim majority areas in British India. There were two areas of concentration, one in the west and one in the east.. Hence, it was decided that new country Pakistan will comprise two territories i.e. West and East Pakistan.

(ii) Secondly, there was a problem of minorities on both sides of border (East and West). Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs in areas of Pakistan and Muslims on the Indian side of Punjab and Bengal found themselves trapped with no option except to leave their homes.

(iii) Third, two of the Muslim majority provinces of British India, Punjab and Bengal, had very large areas where the non-Muslims were in majority. Eventually it was decided that these two provinces would be bifurcated according to the religious majority at the district or even lower level.
(Write any two)

Question 8: What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission? What was its most salient recommendation?

Answer 8: The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed in 1953 to address the complex issue of reorganizing states on linguistic lines in India. Its primary task was to recommend the reorganization of state boundaries to better reflect linguistic and cultural identities, aiming to foster unity and administrative efficiency in a diverse nation. On the basis of the report of this commission, the State Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956. On the basis of this Act, 14 states and 6 union territories were created.

Its most salient recommendation was the reorganization of states primarily on linguistic basis, which led to the creation of states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh, among others. This recommendation aimed to address regional aspirations and linguistic identities within the framework of a unified Indian nation, thereby contributing significantly to the process of nation-building in post-independence India.

Question 9: It is said that the nation is to a large extent an “ imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.

Answer 9: India, as a nation, is characterized by several key features that contribute to its unity despite its diversity:

Cultural Unity: India boasts a rich cultural heritage with diverse traditions, customs, languages, arts, and festivals that contribute to a sense of shared identity.

Historical Richness: The long history of India, marked by ancient civilizations, empires, and cultural exchanges, provides a common historical narrative that binds its people together.

Linguistic Diversity: While India is home to numerous languages, the adoption of Hindi as an official language along with English serves as a unifying factor across different states and linguistic groups.

Political Framework: The adoption of a democratic constitution in 1950, which guarantees fundamental rights and freedoms to all citizens, provides a common political framework that reinforces the idea of India as a nation.

Common Beliefs: India is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs, including Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and others, yet the principles of tolerance and pluralism form a shared value system.

Economic and Social Structure: Despite economic disparities, the pursuit of economic development and social welfare is a shared national goal that unites Indians across regions and communities.

Geographical Identity: The natural geography of India, including its rivers, mountains, and diverse ecosystems, contributes to a collective sense of geographical identity among its people.

Nationalist Sentiment: Over time, events such as the struggle for independence and subsequent nation-building efforts have fostered a strong sense of nationalist sentiment and pride in being Indian.

Based on all these characteristics, India is a nation, which displays unity even in its diversity.

Question 10: Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

“In the history of nation-building only the Soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There too, a sense of unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale – geographic as well as demographic – was comparably massive. The raw material the state had to work with was equally unpropitious: a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease.” – Ramachandra Guha

  • (a) List the commonalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.
  • (b) The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities?
  • (c) In retrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why?

Answer 10: (a) Commonalities between India and Soviet Union :-

  • Both the nations shaped the nation on linguistic basis.
  • To promote welfare motives, the economic and technological developments took place in India also.
  • States were divided on the grounds of geographical boundary and strength of populations also in both the nations.

(b) Dissimilarities :-

  • Soviet Union was divided into 15 independent republics/countries to be disintegrated.
  • India maintained its unity and integrity even among diversified nature of states and peoples without any more division.

(c) The Indian experiment worked better to promote linguistic and cultural plurality without affecting unity and integrity of the nation though India adopted some diplomatic measures to make country united.

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