Class 12 political science chapter 3 question answer in english

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Politics of planned development question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Politics of planned development

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 3
Chapter NamePolitics of planned development ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for Class 12 political science chapter 3 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science politics of planned development pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Which of these statements about the Bombay Plan is incorrect?

  • (a) It was a blueprint for India’s economic future.
  • (b) It supported state-ownership of industry.
  • (c) It was made by some leading industrialists.
  • (d) It supported strongly the idea of planning.

Answer 1: (b) It supported state-ownership of industry.

Question 2: Which of the following ideas did not form part of the early phase of India’s development policy?

  • (a) Planning
  • (b) Liberalisation
  • (c) Cooperative Farming
  • (d) Self sufficiency

Answer 2: (b) Liberalisation

Question 3: The idea of planning in India was drawn from.

  • (a) the Bombay plan
  • (c) Gandhian vision of society
  • (b) experiences of the Soviet
  • (d) Demand by peasant bloc countries organisations
  • i. b and d only
  • ii. d and c only
  • iii. a and b only
  • iv. all the above

Answer 3: iv. all the above

Question 4: . Match the following.

(a) Charan Singhi. Industrialisation
(b) P C Mahalanobisii. Zoning
(c) Bihar Famineiii. Farmers
(d) Verghese Kurieniv. Milk Cooperatives

Answer 4:

(a) Charan Singhiii. Farmers
(b) P C Mahalanobisi. Industrialisation
(c) Bihar Famineii. Zoning
(d) Verghese Kurieniv. Milk Cooperatives

Question 5: What were the major differences in the approach towards development at the time of Independence? Has the debate been resolved?

Answer 5: At the time of independence, development was about becoming more like the industrialised countries of the West, to be involved with the break down of traditional social structure as well as rise of capitalism and liberalism.

1. Modernisation: At independence, modernization was synonymous with growth, material progress, and scientific rationality. This was seen as essential to transform India into a modern state.

2. Development Models: India had two models of modern development at the time of independence into considerations to be adopted i.e. the liberal capitalist model like Europe and the US and the socialist model like the USSR.

3. Debate on Development: A significant debate occurred regarding which model to adopt. There was a debate between communists, socialists and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. J.L. Nehru supported the socialist model to reflect a broad consensus to be developed during national movement.

4. Government Priorities: The government’s priorities were clear: poverty alleviation and socio-economic redistribution were at the forefront. This was reflected in various policies and plans aimed at improving the living standards of the population and reducing inequalities.

5. At the same time, these leaders differed and debated:

Industrialisation: Some leaders argued that industrialization should be the preferred path, as it was seen as the engine of economic growth and modernization.

Agricultural Development: Others believed that agricultural development should take precedence, given India’s agrarian economy and the immediate need to ensure food security and improve rural livelihoods.

Rural Poverty: There was also a strong focus on alleviating rural poverty, which was seen as essential for achieving overall economic development and social stability.

Question 6: What was the major thrust of the First Five Year Plan? In which ways did the Second Plan differ from the first one?

Answer 6: The First Five Year Plan, implemented from April 1, 1951, to March 31, 1956, primarily aimed at alleviating poverty and emphasized agricultural development. This plan stressed land reforms, considering them fundamental to the nation’s progress. Significant investments were made in constructing dams and improving irrigation.

The Second Five Year Plan differed from the first one in several ways:

(i) Emphasis on Heavy Industries: The Second Plan focused more on the development of heavy industries. The government imposed high tariffs on imports to protect domestic industries. This protectionist policy significantly helped both private and public sector industries to grow.

(ii) Pace of Development: The First Plan adopted a slow pace of development, believing that rapid growth might negatively impact the economy. In contrast, the Second Plan aimed for faster development, pushing for rapid structural changes.

(iii) Financial Allocation: The First Plan allocated a total expenditure of ₹2,069 crore, whereas the Second Plan significantly increased the allocation to Rs. 48 billion.

(iv) Nationalization and State Control: The First Plan saw a slower process of nationalization, with limited sectors being nationalized. However, the Second Plan expanded nationalization to include industries such as electricity, railways, steel, machinery, and communication, increasing state control over the economic sector.

Question 7: Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

“In the early years of Independence, two contradictory tendencies were already well advanced inside the Congress party. On the one hand, the national party executive endorsed socialist principles of state ownership, regulation and control over key sectors of the economy in order to improve productivity and at the same time curb economic concentration. On the other hand, the national Congress government pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment that was justified in terms of the sole criterion of achieving maximum increase in production. “ — Francine Frankel

  • (a) What is the contradiction that the author is talking about? What would be the political implications of a contradiction like this?
  • (b) If the author is correct, why is it that the Congress was pursuing this policy? Was it related to the nature of the opposition parties?
  • (c) Was there also a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress party and its Sate level leaders?

Answer 7: (a) The author is talking about contradiction regarding adoption of development models either socialist or capitalist. Political implications of this contradiction may result the differences among party members itself and government can issue licensing and permits in more complicated manner.

(b) Congress was pursuing this policy as a sole criterion of achieving maximum increased in production. Yes, it was related to the nature of opposition parties to be pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment.

(c) No, there was not a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress Party and its state level leaders because state emphasised on states’ ownership, regulation and control over key sectors improve productivity whereas control leadership pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment.

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