Class 12 political science chapter 4 question answer in english

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India’s external relations question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science India’s external relations

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 4
Chapter NameIndia’s external relations class 12 ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for Class 12 political science chapter 4 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science India’s external relations pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ against each of these statements.

  • (a) Non-alignment allowed India to gain assistance both from USA and USSR.
  • (b) India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained from the beginning.
  • (c) The cold war has affected the relationship between India and Pakistan.
  • (d) The treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1971 was the result of India’s closeness to USA.

Answer 1:

  • (a) True
  • (b) False
  • (c) True
  • (d) False

Question 2: Match the following:

(a) The goal of India’s foreign policy in the period 1950-1964i. Tibetan spiritual leader who crossed over to India
(b) Panchsheelii. Preservation of territorial integrity, sovereignty and economic development
(c) Bandung Conferenceiii. Five principles of peaceful coexistence
(d) Dalai Lamaiv. Led to the establishment of NAM

Answer 2:

(a) The goal of India’s foreign policy in the period 1950-1964ii. Preservation of territorial integrity, sovereignty and economic development
(b) Panchsheeliii. Five principles of peaceful coexistence
(c) Bandung Conferenceiv. Led to the establishment of NAM
(d) Dalai Lamai. Tibetan spiritual leader who crossed over to India

Question 3: Why did Nehru regard conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.

Answer 3: Nehru regarded the conduct of foreign policy as an essential indicator of independence. Not only Nehru, but all Congress leaders supported this view. When the Second World War began in 1939, the British government announced India’s participation in the war without consulting or discussing it with Indian leaders. At that time, India was not independent. Even then, the Congress demanded that Indian leaders should be consulted before announcing India’s participation in the war. In protest, the Congress resigned from the provincial cabinets. There are several reasons why Nehru considered the independent determination and conduct of foreign policy as an essential indicator of independence:

(i) Independence in Policy Making: Nehru believed that a country’s foreign policy should be determined and conducted independently without external pressure. If a nation formulates and executes its foreign policy under the influence or direction of another country, its independence becomes meaningless. This subordination forces the country to overlook its national interests and align its actions with the preferences of the dominant power. For instance, during the Asian Relations Conference in 1947, Nehru explicitly stated that as an independent nation, India would participate fully in international conferences based on its independent foreign policy, without succumbing to any great power’s pressure.

(ii) Development of National Pride and Self-respect: Nehru emphasized that the ability to independently manage foreign relations fosters a sense of pride and self-respect in a nation. Without this autonomy, a country cannot hold its head high in the international community, and its moral and ethical development is stunted. Nehru highlighted this sentiment during the Bandung Conference, where he remarked that it was humiliating and disempowering for any Asian or African country to act as a subordinate to the superpowers. He advocated for staying out of power blocs’ disputes and crafting and executing an independent foreign policy.

Question 4: “The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate”. Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.

Answer 4: The statement is justified to maximum extent to be proved during ‘Sino-Indian Conflict of 1962’ to dent India’s image at home and international level, India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to tide over the issues. The Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict:

  • All the occurrings, created a sense of national humiliation but strengthened a spirit of nationalism also on the other hand.
  • Pt. Nehru was also criticised for his naive assessment of Chinese intentions and lack of military preparedness.
  • Political mood of country began to change when no-confidence motion against Nehru moved in and debated in Lok-Sabha.
  • ‘Sino-Indian Conflict’ split the Communist Party of India in 1964s split faction formed the communist party of India (CPI-M).
  • Besides, the war with China alerted Indian leadership to volatile situation in the North east region.
  • Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region posed the challenge of national integration in front of India.

Question 5: Identify any two aspects of India’s foreign policy that you would like to retain and two that you would like to change, if you were to become a decision maker. Give reasons to support your position.

Answer 5: Aspects of India’s Foreign Policy to Retain:

(i) Peaceful and Non-Violent Image: (Reason): The image of India as a peaceful and non-violent country should be remain unchanged at international platform which This enhances India’s soft power, making it a respected voice in global forums and fostering international cooperation.

(i) Refusal to Sign NPT and CTBT: (Reason): Maintaining strategic autonomy and ensuring national security in a nuclearized world are crucial for India’s defense capabilities and deterrence.

Aspects of India’s Foreign Policy to Change:

Diplomatic Method for Neighborly Friendship: (Reason): Establishing clear and proactive diplomatic strategies with neighboring countries can transform the region into a formidable political, economic, and military bloc, promoting regional stability and growth.

Shift from Non-Alignment: (Reason): Adopting a more aligned policy with strategic global powers like the United States and Western European countries can enhance India’s geopolitical influence, access to advanced technology, and economic benefits, strengthening its global standing.

Question 6: Write short notes on the following.

  • (a) India’s Nuclear policy
  • (b) Consensus in foreign policy matters

Answer 6: (a) India’s Nuclear Policy:

  • India has made the declaration for “no first use” treaty. Under this India will not use a nuclear weapon at first place and will also not use against a nation which do not possess nuclear power.
  • Pt. Nehru always promoted ’ science and technology to build a modern India, i.e. initiated nuclear programme in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhoba.
  • India was against nuclear weapons, hence pleaded many nuclear disarmament with superpowers.
  • India always considered NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign on it.
  • Even India’s first Nuclear Test in May 1974 was termed as a peaceful explosion and India argued to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes only.

(b) Consensus in foreign policy matters: Pt. Nehru as a Prime Minister and foreign minister played profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964. When different parties came to power from time to time, foreign policy of India played a limited role in party politics.The national interest should guide the foreign policy of India. This is a general trend which is followed by almost every party in power.

Question 7: India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy? Or would you say that this was a result of international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.

Answer 7: No, this was not the failure of foreign policy but this was a result of international situation:

(i) Conflict with China: China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the government of India did not oppose this openly. when China began to suppress Tibetan Culture, India grew uneasy. Another border dispute arose when China claimed Aksai Chin area and NEFA (much of the state in Arunachal Pradesh) within the Indian territory. Despite discussion among top leaders, these differences could not be resolved. Several small border skirmishes between the armies of the two countries took place.

(ii) A serious armed conflict between two countries began in 1965 with the initiative of Pakistan over Kashmir partition. In 1966, the hostilities came to an end with the UN intervention and Tashkent Agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan. The 1965 War added to India’s already difficult economic situation.

(iii) Bangladesh war, 1971: In 1971, Pakistan unleashed a region of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan. A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be retaliated an attack from India. Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972. Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a clear sign of India’s growing military powers.

(iv) In politics, there are no permanent friends or enemies. Foreign relations are anchored in national interests. Merely beating the drum of ideals all the time doesn’t work. We are a nuclear-armed nation and will attain a permanent seat in the Security Council. This is our stance, and we will always make decisions and work in its favor. Current circumstances dictate that we should engage on every platform and in every place equally, but we should also strive to maintain international peace, security cooperation, love, and brotherhood as much as possible.

Question 8: Does India’s foreign policy reflect her desire to be an important regional power? Argue your case with the Bangladesh war of 1971 as an example.

Answer 8: India is one of the most important nations in Asia. It is also very big and powerful as compared to its neighbors. However India do not undermine the status of any nation and act only when the situation goes out of control. We can see this with the example of Bangladesh.

India’s foreign policy does not reflect at all that India wants to become a regional superpower. The 1971 Bangladesh war does not prove this at all. Pakistan itself had neglectful policies towards East Pakistan which led to the creation of Bangladesh. India is a peaceful country. It has believed in policies of peaceful coexistence, is doing, and will do so in the future.

India has never harbored ambitions of becoming a regional superpower. Although its neighbors continue to make such allegations against it. Even during the Bangladesh war, India defeated Pakistan decisively but released their soldiers with honor. It was due to Pakistan’s discriminatory policies and neglectful behavior that East Pakistan’s people rebelled, leading to war. India morally supported this.

Question 9: How does political leadership of a nation affect its foreign policy? Explain this with the help of examples from India’s foreign policy.

Answer 9: Foreign policy of a nation reflects the political leadership of the nation:

  • During the time of Nehru, non-alignment was the major policy of foreign affairs but slowly and gradually India started gaining a soviet inclination.
  • During non-congress government in 1977, Janata Party announced to follow non-alignment genuinely. This implied that the pro-Soviet tilt in foreign policy will be corrected. Since then, all governments took initiatives to restore better relations with China and entered into close ties with the US.
  • In Post 1990 period the ruling parties were criticised for their pro-US foreign policy. During this period Russia had lost its global pre-eminence despite it has been India’s good friend. Hence, India’s foreign policy shifted to a more pro-US strategy.
  • Besides, the contemporary international situation is also more influenced by economic interests than military interests so made an impact on India’s foreign policy.

Question 10: Read this passage and answer the questions below:

“Broadly, non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs….It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view, though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries.” — Jawaharlal Nehru

  • (a) Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
  • (b) Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons for your answer.
  • (c) If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?

Answer 10: (a) Nehru wanted to keep off military blocs as he wanted rapid development of India by taking financial assistance and technology from both the super-powers and while other countries aligned with one of the two super-powers. He did not like to ruin the limited resources of the country by aligning with any military alliance.

(b) No, the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty did not violate non-alignment because it was not to maintain military relations but the treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation.

(c) NAM emphasises on disarmament, decolonisation and terrorism except staying away from military blocs. Non-alignmеnt would still havе bееn nеcеssary еvеn without military blocs. It goеs bеyond military alliancеs, еncompassing a broadеr diplomatic philosophy of indеpеndеncе, global coopеration, and friеndly rеlations. Non-alignmеnt rеflеcts a commitmеnt to autonomy and thе pursuit of national intеrеsts without aligning with any spеcific powеr bloc.

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