Class 12 Political science chapter 5 question answer in english

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Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 5
Chapter Namechallenges to and restoration of the congress system ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions
MediumEnglish

Are you looking for Class 12 political science chapter 5 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?

  • (a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
  • (b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
  • (c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.
  • (d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.

Answer 1: (a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.

Question 2: Match the following:

(a) Syndicatei. An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket she/he has been elected
(b) Defectionii. A catchy phrase that attracts public attention
(c) Sloganiii. parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies
(d) Anti-Congressismiv. A group of powerful and influential leaders within the Congress

Answer 2:

(a) Syndicateiv. A group of powerful and influential leaders within the Congress
(b) Defectioni. An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket she/he has been elected
(c) Sloganii. A catchy phrase that attracts public attention
(d) Anti-Congressismiii. parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies

Question 3: Whom would you identify with the following slogans/phrases?

  • (a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
  • (b) Indira Hatao!
  • (c) Garibi Hatao!

Answer 3:

  • (a) Lai Bahadur Shastri: Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
  • (b) Syndicate: Indira Hatao!
  • (c) Indira Gandhi: Garibi Hatao!

Question 4: Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct? The Grand Alliance …..

  • (a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
  • (b) had a clear political and ideological programme.
  • (c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.

Answer 4: (a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.

Question 5: How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings.

  • (a) Follow the footsteps of the party president
  • (b) Listen to the majority group
  • (c) Secret ballot voting on every issue
  • (d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party

Answer 5:

  • (a) Follow the footsteps of the party president
    • Advantage: If the party follows the footsteps of the party president, there will be discipline and unity within the party.
    • Shortcoming: The party president can take its decision without taking into consideration the views of its party members. So, the inner democracy may get weakened.
  • (b) Listen to the majority group
    • Advantage: If the party listens to the majority group, there will be more confidence among the party members and inner democracy will be strengthened.
    • Shortcoming: If the party listens to the majority group, factionalism may increase in the party. One faction may try to back another faction to gather support.
  • (c) Secret ballot voting on every issue
    • Advantage: Secret ballot voting is an appropriate system. It is more democratic. Through it, any member can express his views.
    • Shortcoming: Sometimes, the party members may vote through secret ballot by ignoring the whip of the party issued by the party president. It may prove fatal to the party.
  • (d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party
    • Advantage: The novice and less experienced candidates will be benefited if they consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party and also follow their guidelines.
    • Shortcoming: If the party members only consult the senior and experienced leaders and follow their guidelines, their hold will get strengthened in the party.

Question 6: State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer.

  • (a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.
  • (b) Split within the Congress party.
  • (c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups.
  • (d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties.
  • (e) Internal differences within the Congress party.

Answer 6: (a) It may not be the reason of the defeat of Congress party. Because there were so many experienced and charismatic leaders in the party.

(b) It was one of the main reasons of the defeat of Congress party. Now party was split into two groups. Syndicate had strong hold over the Congress party while Indira supporters were more inclined to their leader. One group was in support of capitalism and liberalisation while others opposed it.

(c) Due to the emergence of the Akali Dal in Punjab, D.M.K. in Tamil Nadu got and other regional parties, Congress setback. The party could not get majority at the centre and had to be deprived of power in various states.

(d) There was no unity among non¬Congress parties. So the non¬Congress parties got benefit in other provinces.

(e) Differences within the Congress Party: Due to internal differences within the Congress Party, internal discord soon became evident to everyone. People began to believe that in the 1967 elections, this was also an important reason among the many reasons for the Congress’s performance.

Question 7: What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?

Answer 7: The popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s can be attributed to several key factors:

(i) Economic Reforms: Indira Gandhi implemented significant economic policies, including nationalization of banks (1969) and abolition of the privy purse (1971), which were aimed at reducing inequality and concentrating wealth among the masses.

(ii) Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty) Campaign: The slogan “Garibi Hatao” resonated strongly with the Indian populace, addressing widespread poverty and appealing directly to the poor and marginalized sections of society.

(iii) Electoral Strategy and Victory: The Congress (R) party, under Indira Gandhi, adopted a strategy focused on a pro-poor agenda which led to a landslide victory in the 1971 elections. The campaign focused on direct appeal to the masses rather than traditional vote banks.

(iv) 1971 War and Creation of Bangladesh: The successful handling of the 1971 Indo-Pak war and the creation of Bangladesh boosted national pride and significantly increased Indira Gandhi’s popularity.

(v) Decisive Leadership: Indira Gandhi’s leadership style was perceived as strong and decisive, which garnered support from a wide section of the population who desired stability and effective governance.

(vi) Social Welfare Programs: Various social welfare programs initiated by the government aimed at improving the living standards of the poor further solidified her support base among the lower economic strata.

(vii) Weak Opposition: The fragmentation and lack of strong, cohesive opposition allowed Indira Gandhi to consolidate her position and implement her policies without significant resistance.

These factors collectively led to the widespread popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government during the early 1970s.

Question 8: What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?

Answer 8: In the context of the Congress party in the sixties, the term ‘Syndicate’ referred to a group of powerful leaders within the party who exerted significant influence over decision-making processes. It was led by K. Kamraj, former chief minister of Tamilnadu and the then president of Congress party. It also includes some powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh.

The Syndicate played a vital role in the Congress Party during the 1960s in several ways:

(i) Installation of Prime Ministers: The Syndicate played a decisive role in installing Lal Bahadur Shastri and later Indira Gandhi as Prime Ministers during the sixties.

(ii) Role in Indira Gandhi’s Cabinet and Policies: They were instrumental in forming Indira Gandhi’s first council of Ministers and influencing the formulation and implementation of policies during her early tenure.

(iii) Impact of the Split: Following a split in the Congress party, with Congress (O) led by the Syndicate and Congress (R) by Indira Gandhi, the latter gained popularity after 1971, leading to a decline in the Syndicate’s power and prestige.

Question 9: Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.

Answer 9: The formal split of the Congress Party in 1969 centered around the issue of the presidential election nomination process. Here are the key points:

(i) Nomination Dispute: The Syndicate, a group of powerful Congress leaders, nominated Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy as the official Congress candidate for the presidential elections despite reservations from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

(ii) Indira Gandhi’s Response: Indira Gandhi opposed the Syndicate’s decision and supported V.V. Giri, the Vice-President at that time, as an independent candidate.

(iii) Whip Issued: Congress President S. Nijalingappa, representing the Syndicate, issued a party whip demanding all Congress MPs and MLAs to vote for Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy.

(iv) Indira Gandhi’s Call: On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi openly called for a conscience vote to vote the way they want.

(v) Election Outcome: V.V. Giri won the election due to the widespread support he gained, despite the official Congress candidate’s nomination. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was defeated.

(vi) Impact: The defeat of the Syndicate-backed candidate and the split in voting loyalty marked a definitive rupture within the Congress Party, leading to its formal split in 1969.

Question 10: Read the passage and answer the questions below:

…Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly cerntalised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led…..But this… could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology ……. into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…… During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died….. — Sudipta Kaviraj

  • (a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?
  • (b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies?
  • (c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?

Answer 10: (a) According to the author, the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi lies in their approach to party organization and political ideology. Nehru led a Congress that was federal, democratic, and accommodative of various ideological currents within the party, including opposition voices. In contrast, Indira Gandhi centralized power within the Congress, creating an undemocratic and highly centralized party structure.

(b) The author says that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies because Indira Gandhi’s was behaving authoritarian. They centralized all the powers of the Congress to their own or some counted hardcore supporters. They formed the cabinet and the party in an arbitrary manner. The phase of debate and discussion within the party ended. Opponents were crushed practically, and emergency was declared in 1975. Coercive sterilization programs were carried out. Many national and popular leaders were put in jail.

(c) Due to changes in the Congress party, mutual unity increased among other parties. They formed non-Congress and non-socialist organizations. They supported Jayaprakash Narayan’s complete revolution. Hidden assistance was provided to the families of those who were imprisoned. National self-respect increased. Many groups from Congress moved away and came before people as the Janata Party. In the 1977 elections, opposition parties swept away Congress.

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