Class 12 Political science chapter 6 question answer in english

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The Crisis of Democratic Order question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science The Crisis of Democratic Order

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 6
Chapter NameThe Crisis of Democratic Order ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions
MediumEnglish

Are you looking for Class 12 political science chapter 6 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science The Crisis of Democratic Order pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are correct or incorrect.

  • (a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
  • (b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
  • (c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
  • (d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
  • (e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.

Answer 1: (a) Correct, (b) Correct, (c) Incorrect, (d) Correct, (e) Correct

Question 2: Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency.

  • (a) The call for ‘Total Revolution.
  • (b) The Railway Strike of 1974
  • (c) The Naxalite Movement
  • (d) The Allahbad High Court verdict
  • (e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report

Answer 2: (c) The Naxalite Movement

Question 3: Match the following

(a) Total Revolutioni. Indira Gandhi
(b) Garibi hataoii. Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Students’ Protestiii. Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strikeiv. George Fernandes

Answer 3:

(a) Total Revolutionii. Jayaprakash Narayan
(b) Garibi hataoi. Indira Gandhi
(c) Students’ Protestiii. Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strikeiv. George Fernandes

Question 4: What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?

Answer 4: The mid-term elections of 1980 in India were primarily triggered by several key factors:

(i) Lack of Direction and Leadership in Janata Party: The Janata Party, which came to power after defeating the Congress, faced internal divisions and lacked a clear direction and strong leadership.

(ii) Failure to Bring Fundamental Policy Changes: Despite being elected on promises of change from Congress policies, the Janata Party government under Morarji Desai could not effectively implement significant policy reforms or distinguish itself from the previous Congress regimes.

(iii) Internal Split within Janata Party: Within 18 months of forming the government, the Janata Party faced a split, leading to the loss of its majority. Morarji Desai’s government was unable to maintain stability.

(iv) Support and Withdrawal of Congress: Charan Singh briefly became Prime Minister with the support of the Congress party. However, when Congress withdrew its support, Charan Singh’s government resigned within four months.

These cumulative factors, including leadership challenges, policy inertia, internal party splits, and political instability due to shifting alliances, collectively precipitated the mid-term elections of 1980, which defeated Janata Party and again Congress led by Indira Gandhi came back to power by winning 353 seats.

Question 5: The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?

Answer 5: The Shah Commission was appointed in May, 1977 by Janata Party government. if was headed by J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India. The commission was appointed to look into the matters of:

  • Allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices as well as actions taken in the name of emergency proclaimed on 25 June 1975.
  • The Commission examined various kinds of evidence and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies including Indira Gandhi who appeared before the Commission but refused to answer any questions.

Findings of Shah Commission:

  • (a) It found many ‘excesses’ committed during Emergency.
  • (b) Under preventive detention laws nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested.
  • (c) Press censorship took place without any proper legal sanctions.
  • (d) Even general manager of Delhi Power Supply Corporation received verbal orders from the officers of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspapers press.

The Government of India accepted these findings, the reports were also presented in the two houses of parliament.

Question 6: What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?

Answer 6: During the National Emergency declared in India in 1975, the government cited several reasons for invoking Article 352 of the Constitution:

  • Legal Challenge to Indira Gandhi’s Election: The emergency was proclaimed in response to a petition filed by Raj Narain, seeking to declare Indira Gandhi’s election invalid.
  • Internal Disturbances: On June 25, 1975, the government declared the threat of internal disturbances to invoke Article 352 of constitution.
  • Article 352: Article 352 allows for the declaration of an emergency based on either internal or external disturbances.
  • Crisis and Objectives: The government believed that a grave crisis existed, necessitating the proclamation of emergency. The goals were to restore law and order, enhance administrative efficiency, and implement pro-poor welfare programs.
  • Presidential Proclamation: President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed officially declared the emergency, marking one of the most controversial episodes in Indian politics.

Question 7: The 1977 elections for the first time saw the Opposition coming into power at the Centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?

Answer 7: The 1977 elections were evolved as a shock to everyone as Congress party was defeated for the very first time and opposition party came into power:

  1. The opposition adopted the slogan ‘Save democracy’ against imposition of emergency earlier.
  2. The Janata Party made the elections of 1977 like a referendum on the issue of emergency. In its election campaign this party laid focus on undemocratic character of the Indira Government and excesses that the people had to suffer.
  3. The opposition party highlighted the preventive detention and press censorship to favour public opinion.
  4. Janata Party also ensured not to divide non-Congress votes.
  5. Middle section of north India was moving away from Congress for whom Janata Party became a platform.
  6. Hence, elections of 1977 emerged many other factors instead about emergency only.

Question 8: Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity

  • Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
  • Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary
  • Functioning of Mass Media
  • Working of the Police and Bureaucracy.

Answer 8: (a) Under the provisions of emergency, the fundamental rights of the citizens were suspended. Now they did not have the right even to move the Courts for the protection of their freedoms. The government made large scale arrests under preventive detention. Arrested political person could not challenge arrest grounds to even under Habeas Corpus petition.

(b) During the period of emergency, Writ petitions were filed in the High Courts and Supreme Court on behalf of the detained persons, but the Government’s reply was that the reasons of detention could not be given in the public interest. The 42nd was also passed to bring a series of changes in constitution like duration of legislatures, elections can be postponed by one year during an emergency.

(c) During emergency the Government imposed press censorship. The newspapers were need to get prior approval before publishing of any of their material. Kannada writer Shivarama Karanth awarded with Padma Bhushan and Hindi writer Fanishwarnath Tlenu with Padmashri returned their awards in protest against suspension of democracy. Newspapers mainly Indian Express, and the statesman protested against censorship by leaving blank spaces where news items were censored.

(d) During emergency police committed excesses. Some people died in police custody. The bureaucracy also expanded its wings. It imposed family planning measures. Unauthorised structures were demolished. The slums were cleared by the use of force.

Question 9: In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.

Answer 9: (i) Suspension of Democratic Process: The imposition of Emergency in 1975 gave the ruling party absolute majority, enabling them to suspend democratic norms and freedoms.

(ii) Expansion of Government Powers: Emergency provisions granted wide discretionary powers to the government, challenging constitutional checks and balances.

(iii) Institutional vs. Popular Democracy: A tension and differences arose between institution based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation, raising concerns about democratic legitimacy.

(iv) Party System’s Inadequacy: It was attributed to incapability of party system to incorporate aspirations of the people.

(v) Formation of Janata Party: Opposition parties united under the Janata Party banner to counter Congress, marking a shift towards coalition politics and away from one-party dominance.

(vi) End of One-Party Rule: The 1977 elections marked the end of Congress’s uninterrupted dominance and ushered in an era of coalition governments, altering India’s political landscape.

Question 10: Read the passage and answer the questions below:

Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups……….. … … …The Janata Party also went through major convulsions…..David Butler, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha Chatterjee

  • (a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
  • (b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
  • (c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata parties?

Answer 10: (a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?

Ans. During the elections of 1977 the dominance of Congress came to an end at the Central level. Janata Party was successful in forming the government. This led to the beginning of the period of two-party system in India.

(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?

Ans. There were lot of parties during the 1977 however the two large groups that were contesting the elections was Congress Party and the Janata Party. The Janata Party was the coalition of all the parties who opposed the ideology of the Congress.

(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata parties?

Ans. Congress was split on the matter on dispute during the Presidential elections. The Syndicate and Indira Gandhi supported different candidates during the elections.

The split in the Janata Party took place due to the differences in the party leadership among Moraraji Desai, Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram.

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