Class 12 Political science chapter 7 question answer in english

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Regional aspirations class 12 questions and answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Regional aspirations

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 7
Chapter NameRegional aspirations class 12 ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions
MediumEnglish

Are you looking for Class 12 political science chapter 7 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Regional aspirations pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Match the following.

A. Nature of regional aspirationB. States
(a) Socio-religious identity leading to statehoodi. Nagaland /Mizoram
(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centreii. Jharkhand /Chattisgarh
(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehoodiii. Punjab
(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identityiv. Tamil Nadu

Answer 1:

A. Nature of regional aspirationB. States
(a) Socio-religious identity leading to statehoodiii. Punjab
(b) Linguistic identity and tensions with Centreiv. Tamil Nadu
(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for Statehoodii. Jharkhand /Chattisgarh
(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identityi. Nagaland /Mizoram

Question 2: Regional aspirations of the people of North-East get expressed in different ways. These include movements against outsiders, movement for greater autonomy and movement for separate national existence. On the map of the North-East, using different shades for these three, show the States where these expressions are prominently found.

Answer 2:

  • Movements against outsiders: Assam.
  • Movement for greater autonomy: Nagaland, Mizoram, and Meghalaya.
  • Movement for separate national existence: Nagaland, Manipur, and Tripura.

Question 3: What were the main provisions of the Punjab accord? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between the Punjab and its neighbouring States?

Answer 3: The Punjab Accord, also known as the Rajiv-Longowal Accord, Punjab Accord was an agreement signed between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal in 1985’ also to create normalcy in Punjab.

Main Provisions of the Punjab Accord

  • Chandigarh: Chandigarh to be transferred to Punjab, and Haryana to receive a new capital.
  • Territorial Claims: To appoint a separate commission to resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
  • River Waters: A tribunal to be set up to adjudicate the sharing of Ravi-Beas river waters between Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan.
  • Compensation and Rehabilitation: Provisions for compensation and rehabilitation of those affected by the militancy in Punjab.
  • Armed Forces Withdrawal: Withdrawal of armed forces from Punjab and normalization of law and order.
  • Centre-State Relations: Greater autonomy to Punjab within the framework of the Indian Constitution.
  • Investigation and Review: Review of cases against certain groups and individuals involved in the militancy period.

But, peace could not be established easily in Punjab and resulted as follows:

  • Peace did not come easily. The cycle of violence continued nearly for a decade.
  • Militancy and counter insurgency violence led to excesses by the police and violations of human rights.
  • Politically, it led to fragmentation of the Akali Dal.
  • The central government had to impose President’s rule in the State and the normal electoral and political process was suspended.
  • When elections were held in Punjab in 1992, only 24 percent of the electors tuned out to vote.

Question 4: Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?

Answer 4: The Anandpur Sahib Resolution, adopted in 1973 by the Akali Dal, became controversial due to several reasons, particularly its implications for the political and social fabric of India.

  • (а) To ascertain regional autonomy and to redefine centre-state relations.
  • (b) Sikhs aspirations aimed at ‘bolbala’ (dominance) of Sikhs.
  • (c) It could also be interpreted as a plea for separate sikh nation despite of federal spirit.

But, it became controversial due to following reasons:

  1. Due to lack of popularity of Akali Dal resolution had a United appeal.
  2. Akali government was dismissed in 1980s it lost its importance.
  3. Akali Dal launched a movement on the distribution of water between Punjab and its neighbouring states.
  4. Movement went into the hands of extremist elements from moderate Akalis and converted into armed insurgency for which Anandpur Sahib Resolution considered responsible.

Question 5: Explain the internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these lead to multiple regional aspirations in that State.

Answer 5: The State of Jammu and Kashmir, now reorganized into two Union Territories (Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh) as of October 31, 2019, has historically exhibited significant internal divisions that have given rise to multiple regional aspirations. These divisions can be understood along geographic, cultural, linguistic, and religious lines, leading to distinct regional identities and political aspirations within the state.

Jammu–Kashmir has three regions– Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.

  • Kashmir region: Kashmir region is Kashmir valley consisting Kashmiri speaking and mostly Muslim with a minority of Kashmiri-speaking Hindus.
  • Jammu region: Jammu region consists of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and speakers of various languages, primarily in the areas of foothills and plains.
  • Ladakh: Ladakh region is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims and maintains an little population area.

Linguistic and Religious Divisions

Language: Jammu & Kashmir is a multilingual state with languages like Kashmiri, Dogri, Ladakhi, Balti, and Urdu. Linguistic differences contribute to regional identities and aspirations.

Religion: The religious diversity in Jammu (Hindu), Kashmir Valley (Muslim), and Ladakh (Buddhist and Shia Muslim) has shaped the social and political landscape, often leading to differing regional demands.

These internal divisions led to multiple regional aspirations:

  1. One strand of separatist to demand a separate Kashmiri nation independent of India and Pakistan.
  2. Some other groups want Kashmir to be merged with Pakistan.
  3. Third strand wants a greater autonomy for people of state within Indian Union.
  4. The demand for intra-state autonomy
    is as strong as the demand for the state autonomy.

In present scenario, most of the separatist in dialogue are trying to re-negotiate a relationship of state with India.

Question 6: What are the various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir? Which of these do you think are justifiable? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer 6: On the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir, the following positions are states as:

  1. Kashmiris were promised to make accession on reference of people after situation created by tribal invasion, becomes normal. But it has not been fulfilled, hence, it generated the demand for “Plebiscite”.
  2. Sometimes, it was felt that special federal status guaranteed by Article 370 has been eroded practically which led the demand for restoration of autonomy or “Greater State Autonomy”.
  3. It is felt that democracy, which is practised in rest of India has not been similarly institutionalised in Jammu and Kashmir.

We prefer the first position because ‘Plebiscite’ provides better opportunity to people of J & K to protect and sustain their regional autonomy in a very democratic manner.

Question 7: The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.

Answer 7: Because:

Cultural Pride:

  • Identity and Preservation: The movement was driven by the desire to preserve Assamese identity, language, and culture against perceived threats from the influx of outsiders.
  • Assam Accord: The movement culminated in the Assam Accord of 1985, which sought to protect Assamese cultural and linguistic heritage.

Economic Backwardness:

  • Neglect and Underdevelopment: The region faced economic neglect and underdevelopment, leading to widespread dissatisfaction.
  • Resource Exploitation: Despite being rich in natural resources like oil and tea, locals felt that benefits were not reaching them, fueling economic grievances.

Mass Mobilization:

  • Student Involvement: The All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) played a crucial role, mobilizing the youth and creating a widespread movement.
  • Protests and Agitations: The movement involved mass protests, strikes, and agitations, highlighting both cultural and economic issues.

Political Outcomes:

  • Formation of AGP: The movement led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad (AGP), which later came to power in Assam.
  • Policy Changes: The movement resulted in policy changes addressing issues of illegal immigration and regional development.

This synthesis of cultural pride and economic grievances highlights the dual nature of the Assam movement, combining the fight for cultural identity with demands for economic justice.

Question 8: All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples from this chapter.

Answer 8: In a democratic setup, regional movements do not always translate into separatist demands. For instance, during the 1980s in India, various regions experienced significant unrest: Punjab faced militancy, the North-East grappled with persistent issues, Assam saw student protests, and Kashmir Valley was volatile. Rather than opting for suppression, the Indian government engaged in democratic negotiations with these regional movements. This approach aimed at addressing underlying grievances and accommodating regional aspirations within the framework of national unity. Such negotiations led to settlements that reduced tensions and fostered reconciliation, illustrating how democratic processes can effectively manage and integrate regional aspirations without resorting to separatism.

Question 9: Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer 9: Yes, we agree with the statement because India adopted a democratic approach on these regional aspirations in place of considering them as anti-national:

  • Democratic Approach: India’s democratic politics allows people and groups to address the people on the basis of their regional identity, aspiration, and specific regional problems.
  • Policy Attention: India’s democratic politics focus on regional issues and problems to receive adequate attention and accommodation in the policy making process, i.e. regional aspirations of Assam, Punjab and North-East, Kashmir etc.
  • Historical Examples: Instances like the Punjab insurgency in the 1980s, ongoing issues in the North-East, Assam’s student movements, and unrest in Kashmir highlight diverse regional challenges.
  • Negotiation and Settlement: The Indian government has successfully negotiated settlements, reducing tensions in various regions.
  • Case of Mizoram: Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.

It can be concluded that regional aspirations do not encourage separation but these respect diversity to retain unity in the nation.

Question 10: Read the passage and answer the questions below:

One of Hazarika’s songs.. … dwells on the unity theme; the seven states of north-eastern India become seven sisters born of the same mother. …. ‘Meghalaya went own way…., Arunachal too separated and Mizoram appeared in Assam’s gateway as a groom to marry another daughter.’ ….. …. .. The song ends with a determination to keep the unity of the Assamese with other smaller nationalities that are left in the present-day Assam – ‘the Karbis and the Missing brothers and sisters are our dear ones.’ — SANJIB BARUAH

  • (a) Which unity is the poet talking about?
  • (b) Why were some States of North-East created separately out of the erstwhile State of Assam?
  • (c) Do you think that the same theme of unity could apply to all the regions of India? Why?

Answer 10: (a) The poet is talking about the Unity of Assamese.
(b) Because these states face that Assamese government was imposing Assamese language on them. Hence, regional aspirations began.
(c) Yes, same theme of unity could apply to all regions of India because Indian government deals with all these regional aspirations with respect to accommodate regional diversities.

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