Class 12 Political science chapter 8 question answer in english

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Recent Developments in Indian Politics questions and answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Recent Developments in Indian Politics

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 8
Chapter NameRecent Developments in Indian Politics ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions
MediumEnglish

Are you looking for Class 12 political science chapter 8 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Recent Developments in Indian Politics pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni…and arrange the file chronologically.

  • (a) Implementation of the recommendation of the Mandal Commission
  • (b) Formation of the Janata Dal
  • (c) Supreme court Judgment on the Ram Janmabhoomi
  • (d) Assassination of Indira Gandhi
  • (e) The formation of NDA government
  • (f) Formation of the UPA government

Answer 1:

(d) Assassination of Indira Gandhi – 1984
(b) Formation of the Janata Dal – 1988
(a) Implementation of the recommendation of the Mandal Commission – 1990
(e) Formation of the NDA government – 1998
(f) Formation of the UPA government – 2004
(c) Supreme Court Judgment on the Ram Janmabhoomi – 2010

Question 2: Match the following.

(a) Politics of Consensusi. Shah Bano case
(b) Caste based partiesii. Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justiceiii. Coalition government
(d) Growing strength of Regional partiesiv. Agreement on Economic policies

Answer 2:

(a) Politics of Consensusiv. Agreement on Economic policies
(b) Caste based partiesii. Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justicei. Shah Bano case
(d) Growing strength of Regional partiesiii. Coalition government

Question 3: State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?

Answer 3: In the period after 1989, Indian politics witnessed several significant issues, leading to different configurations of political parties. Here are the main issues and their impacts:

(i) Decline of the Congress Party: The Congress party suffered a major defeat in the 1989 general elections, securing only 197 seats. This led to political instability, necessitating mid-term elections in 1991. The decline of Congress dominance resulted in increased alliances among various political parties. The National Front formed governments twice, but due to Congress withdrawing support and lack of unity among opposition parties, political instability persisted.

(ii) Rise of Mandal Politics: The introduction of the Mandal Commission report in 1990, recommending reservations for Other Backward Classes (OBCs), played a crucial role in post-1989 politics. Political parties started focusing on vote-bank politics, leading to increased support for backward classes. Most parties supported reservations for OBCs, which fostered alliances among them based on caste politics.

(iii) Economic Reforms: Post-1990, the economic policies adopted by successive governments underwent fundamental changes. Economic reforms and the new economic policy led to the alignment of various right-wing and regional parties. Two main trends emerged: some parties supported non-Congress coalitions, while others supported non-BJP coalitions, leading to diverse political alliances.

(iv) Demolition of Babri Masjid in December 1992: This even intensified debates about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism. These developments are associated with the rise of the BJP and the politics of ‘Hindutva’.

(v) The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991: It led to a change in leadership of the Congress party. He was assassinated by a Sri Lankan Tamil linked to the LTTE. In the elections of 1991, Congress emerged as the single largest party.

These issues led to various configurations of political parties, including the formation of coalition governments and alliances based on caste, economic policies, and religious ideologies.

Question 4: “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?

Answer 4: The statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics the emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement:

  1. Coalition politics has shifted the focus from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
  2. Most parties of NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of B JP still they came together to form government and remained in power also for full term.

Question 5: Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics

Answer 5: The emergence of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) as a significant force in post-Emergency politics can be traced through several key developments:

  • Formation of Janata Party (1977): After the Emergency (1975-77), the Bharatiya Jana Sangh merged with other opposition parties to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 elections.
  • Internal Conflicts and Splintering: Internal conflicts within the Janata Party led to the reformation of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh as the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in 1980.
  • Early Struggles (1980s): Initially, the BJP struggled to gain significant electoral success, focusing on promoting a moderate image under leaders like Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
  • Shift to Hindutva (Late 1980s): Under the leadership of L.K. Advani, the BJP shifted its focus to a more assertive Hindutva ideology, which resonated with many voters.
  • Ram Janmabhoomi Movement: The BJP actively supported the Ram Janmabhoomi movement, which aimed to build a temple at the disputed Babri Masjid site in Ayodhya. This garnered significant support from the Hindu electorate.
  • Electoral Gains (1989 and 1991): The BJP made substantial gains in the 1989 and 1991 general elections, becoming a major political force and the main opposition party.
  • Coalition Politics (1990s): The BJP formed alliances with regional parties, enhancing its political reach and influence.
  • First Government (1996): The BJP briefly formed a government in 1996 but lacked a majority and had to step down after 13 days.
  • NDA Formation and Victory (1998): The BJP led the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) to victory in the 1998 elections, with Atal Bihari Vajpayee becoming Prime Minister.
  • Consolidation of Power: The BJP continued to consolidate its power, emphasizing economic reforms, nationalism, and governance under leaders like Vajpayee and later Narendra Modi.

These points highlight the significant milestones in the rise of the BJP in post-Emergency Indian politics.

Question 6: In spite of the decline of Congress dominance, the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer 6: The defeat of Congress Party in 1989 marked an end of Congress dominance over Indian Party System. But Congress continued to influence politics in country:

  • The Congress improved its performance and came back to power soon after the mid-term elections held in 1991.
  • In 1996, the left continued to support the non-Congress government but this time Congress supported it as both Congress and Left wanted to keep BJP out of power.
  • In 2004, Congress formed coalition government with their alliance.

Thus, Congress remained an important party and ruled country more than any other party even during the period since 1989. But it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.

Question 7: Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of last 30 years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.

Answer 7: Party system is the backbone of the democracy as it provide meaningful option to the people. The parties with different ideologies tried to convince people to support them in the elections. Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy as one can form the government and another one can play the role of opposition. Opposition also play very important role in the functioning of democracy draw the attention of the government to the real issues. During the first two decades, there was only one party, Indian National Congress was present.

During the first 30 years after the independence there was dominance of only Congress party in the politics in India. They ruled from 1947 to 1977 and had no political opposition.

  • It was in 1977 that for the first time a non-Congress government was formed at the centre. However the Janata government was not able to complete its full tenure.
  • It was during 1999-2004 that a first non- Congress government was successful in completing its first tenure.
  • Since then the Congress and the BJP has been the two major parties effecting the politics of the country.
  • The two party system is effective as it provides a strong opposition to the ruling party which ensures that the ruling party did not use its power in arbitrary manner.

Question 8: Read the passage and answer the questions below:

Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests, …. . An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests. — Zoya Hasan

(a) Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.
(b) Given an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.
(c) Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?

Answer 8: (a) The most important challenge faced by a political party is to accommodate the interests of majority of the sections of the society in its policy. The dominance of the Congress system came to an end as they were not able to address the issues of several sections of the society effectively.

(b) There are lot of examples that can be seen as lack of accommodation and aggregation. Some of the popular cases are Shah Bano case and Babri Masjid issue.

(c) In a democracy the needs of the people are varying. Different groups have different vested interest. The political party has to ensure balance among the different groups for ensuring its success.

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