12 Class Political Science Chapter 9 Globalisation Notes
Class 12th Political Science Chapter 9 Globalisation Notes here we will be learn about Globalisation: Meaning, Manifestation and Debates etc.
What is Globalisation ?
🔹 Globalisation as a concept fundamentally deals with flows. These flows could be of various kinds , ideas , capital commodities and people. The crucial element is the worldwide interconnectedness that is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows.
🔹 Globalisation is a multidimentional concept ; it has political , economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distingu sghed ; it is wrong to assume that globalisation has purely economic dimensions just as it would also be mistaken to assume that it is a purely cultural phenome non.
Examples of Globalisation : –
🔹 If we look for examples of the use of the term ‘globalisation’ in real life, we will realise that it is used in various contexts. Let us look at some examples : –
- Availability of various foreign goods in India.
- Provide various new career opportunities for youth.
- To provide services by an Indian according to the American calendar and time.
- Some farmers committed suicide because their crops failed. They had bought very expensive seeds supplied by a multinational company (MNC).
- An Indian company bought a major rival company based in Europe, despite protests by some of the current owners.
- Many retail shopkeepers fear that they would lose their livelihoods if some major international companies open retail chains in the country.
- A film producer in Mumbai was accused of lifting the story of his film from another film made in Hollywood.
- A militant group issued a statement threatening college girls who wear western clothes.
🔹 These examples show us that globalisation need not always be positive; it can have negative consequences for the people.
Cause of Globalisation : –
🔹 Technology and economic interdependence are important causes of globalisation due to which world has become a Global Village today.
🔹 The events that are taking place in one part of the world could have an impact on another part of the world. The bird flu or Tusanami or covid – 19 is not confined to any particular nation. It does not respect National boundaries.
🔹 Similarly when major economic events take place , their impact is felt outside their immediate local , national or regional environment at the global level.
Main components of worldwide mutual engagement : –
🔹 All the Countries of the world are closely involved by development of information and communication system , mutual dependence and mutual support.
Charactistic of Globalisation : –
- Free flow of ideas capital commodities and people.
- Capitalism , openness and increase in world trade.
- Worldwide interconnectedness and inter dependence.
- Global cooperation and influence in various economic events like recession and boom epidemics like ebola , swine flu and HIV AIDS.
Effects of Globalisation : –
🔶 ECONOMIC Effects : –
- Positive Effect :-
- Increased economic impact
- Increase in business activities
- Increased in Economic growth
- Prevents mutual dependency
- Negative Effect : –
- Blocks the flow of history.
- Gap between rich and poor increases .
- More benefits to developed countries.
- Economic colonialism.
🔶 POLITICAL Effects : –
- Positive Effect :-
- Increase in efficiency of states due to the rise of technology and information.
- Alternative means of protection.
- The role of available states has diminished but not eliminated.
- Negative Effect : –
- Minimum intervention of State
- Determinates Market Economy
- Increase in MNCS
- After State Sovereignty
- Less Role of Public Welfare State
🔶 CULTURAL Effects : –
- Positive Effect :-
- Cultural Homogeneity
- Increases the area of choice due to external cultural influence.
- Negative Effect : –
- Ending of originality of culture of each county.
- Disappearance of culture of less powerful society.
- The culture of least developed and Developing Countries is being westernized.
Expressions of Globalisation : –
🔹 Globalisation is a multi – dimensional concept having political , economic and cultural manifestations.
- POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES
- ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES
- CULTURAL CONSEQUENCES
POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES : –
🔹 Globalisation results in decline of state capacity that is the ability of the government to perform tasks gets reduced. Globalisation has impacted the way the state functions.
🔹 Market becomes a prime determinant to settle down social and economic priorities in place of welfare.
🔹 The increased role of MNC all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decisions on their own .
🔹 In some respects state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens. With this information, the state is better able to rule, not less able. Thus, states become more powerful than they were earlier as an outcome of the new technology.
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES : –
- The role of international institutions like the IMF and the WTO in making economic policies.
- Domination of rich , infuential and development countries in these institutions.
- Movement of commodities , capital , people and ideas Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe.
- The spread of internet and computer related services is increasing.
- Developed countries have carefully guarded their borders with visa policies to ensure that citizens of other countries cannot take away the jobs of their own citizens.
- Advocates of economic globalisation argue that it generates great economic growth and well – being for larger sections of the population when there is deregulation.
- Economic globalisation is inevitable and it is not wise to resist the March of history.
- As a result of globalisation there is increased momentum towards interdependence and integration between governments , businesses and ordinary people in different parts of the world.
CULTURAL CONSEQUENCES : –
- Cultural homogenisation leads to imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
- Globalisation poses threat to cultures in the world.
- It leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe Sometimes external influences in food and clothings simply enlarge our choices.
- It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive.
Cultural Homogenisation : –
🔹 It is an important aspect of cultural globalisation. It refers to the rise of uniform culture or different cultural practices into one common culture. Although , rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of a global culture. It somehow leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
Cultural Heterogenisation : –
🔹 Cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation which also generates an opposite effect. The process leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive in nature. This phenomenon is defined as cultural heterogenisation.
McDonaldisation : –
🔹 Domination of western cultureover the culture of other Nations is called McDonaldisation.
Economic impact of globalisation : –
- Economic growth balanced by equal trade and labour laws.
- Determination of the rules of international trade by western countries.
- Demage to small scale industries because of MNC’s
INDIA AND GLOBALISATION : –
🔹 During the colonial period as a consequence of Britain’s imperial ambitions , India became an exporter of primary goods and raw materials and a consumer of finished goods.
🔹 After independence we decided to make things ourselves rather than relying on other. This protectionism generated its own problems while some advances were made in certain areas critical sectors such as health housing and primary education did not receive the attention they deserts.
🔹 India had a fairly sluggish rate of economic growth in 1991 responding to a financial crisis and to the , desire for higfer rates of economic growth India embarked on a programme of economic reforms that has sought increasingly to deregulate various sectors including trade and foreign investment.
Impact of globalisation on India : –
- Rapid economic growth
- Availability of new opportunites
- Emergence of new challenges in domestic industries.
- Important place of India in world politics.
- Non Residents of India ( NRI ) are promoting Indian culture abroad.
- People of India have managed to establish their dominance in computer software.
- Today Indians have succeeded in occupying high positions globally.
Influence of Globalisation on India : –
- Rapid economic development ,
- Important place of India in world politics
- Availability of new opportunities
- Negative Impact on the status of workers and peasants.
- Cultural Differentiation
- Rise in New Challenges in Domestic Industries
RESISTANCE TO GLOBALISATION : –
- GLOBALISATION is a very contentious subject and has invited strong criticisms all over the globe.
- Those on the left argue that contemporary globalisution represents a particular phase of global capitalism that makes the rich richer and ( fewer ) and the poor poorer.
- Critics of globalisation from the political right express anxiety over the political economic and cultural effects.
- They fear the weakening of the state and want to return to self – reliance and protectionism.
- They are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age old values and ways.
- The world social forum ( WSF ) is another Global platform which bring together a wide coalition composed of human rights activists , environmentalists , labour , youth and women activists opposed to Neo liberal globalisation.
- The first WSF meeting was organised in Porto alegre ( Brazil ) in 2001.
The Cold War Era ( Deleted )
The End of Bipolarity
US Hegemony in World Politics ( Deleted )
Contemporary Centres of Power
Contemporary South Asia
Security in the Contemporary World
Environment and Natural Resources