History Class 12 Chapter 1 question answer in english

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Bricks beads and bones question answer: Ncert Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks Beads and Bones

ClassClass 12
ChapterChapter 1
Chapter NameBricks beads and bones class 12 ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for History Class 12 Chapter 1 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Class 12 History chapter 1 questions and answers in English [ Answer in 100-150 words ]

Question 1: List the items of food available to people in Harappan cities. Identify the groups who would have provided these.

Answer 1: In Harappan cities, the diet of the people included a variety of food items such as Wheat maize, millets, pluses, and possibly rice. Fruits like dates, melons, and pomegranates were also consumed. Animal-based food included fish, meat from animals, sheep, goats, and poultry. Milk and milk products were part of the diet as well. Agricultural produce was mainly provided by farmers, while animal products came from herders and pastoralists. Fishing communities and those engaged in hunting contributed fish and game.

Question 2: How do archaeologists trace socio-economic differences in Harappan society? What are the differences that they notice?

Answer 2: Archaeologists trace socio-economic differences in Harappan society through various means. The following examples illustrate the existence of social and economic variations in Harappan society:

1. Burial Practices:

Study of burials: Study of burials is the one example. In the Harappan sites, the dead were usually laid in pits, there were differences in the construction of these pits. Some burial pits were lined with bricks, though this may not directly indicate social differences.

Grave Goods: The presence of pottery and ornaments in some graves points to socio-economic differences. Jewellery found in burials of both men and women suggests variations in wealth and status.

2. Artefacts Classification: which archaeologists broadly classify as utilitarian and luxuries.

Utilitarian Objects: These include everyday items made from ordinary materials like stone or clay. Examples are querns, pottery, needles, and flesh-rubbers. These objects are typically found throughout settlements and indicate the common daily life of the majority.

Luxury Items: These were rare and made from costly or non-local materials, or with complicated technologies. For instance, faience pots were considered precious and were not easy to make. The presence of such luxury items signifies higher social and economic status for certain individuals or groups.

Question 3: Would you agree that the drainage system in Harappan cities indicates town planning? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer 3: Yes, I agree with that the drainage system in Harappan cities which indicates the town planning can cite the following reasons in support of my answer.

(i) The drainage system needed a planning for its execution. It seems that first drainage were laid out and then houses were built along with the drains very house were supposed to have at least one wall along a street to allow the domestic waste water to flow out in the street drains. The plans of the lower town show that roads and streets were laid out along an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles.

(ii) Bricks, sundried or baked were of standard ratio. The length and breadth of bricks were of four times and times and twice the height respectively. These bricks were used at all the settlement of the Harappan civilisation.

(iii) It appears that human settlement was made by planning from the beginning. The city was restricted to the fixed area of platforms.

Question 4: List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan civilisation. Describe the process by which any one kind of bead was made.

Answer 4: Making beads was an important craft of the Harappan people. It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro.

List of materials: The Harappan civilization utilized a variety of materials to create beads, showcasing their advanced craftsmanship and artistic skills. The materials included: beautiful red coloured stone-like carnelian , jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite. Besides these, use of copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracotta or burnt clay was also used.

🔹 Process Of Making Beads : – The process of making beads was remarkable. It deffered according to the material. It had the following statges:

  • The beads did not have geometrical forms like the ones made out of harder stones. They had a variety of shapes.
  • The red colour of carnelian was obtained by firing the yellowish raw material.
  • Nodules were chipped into rough shapes. Thus they were finely flaked into to final form.
  • The last phase of the process included grinding polishing and drilling. The specialised drills have been found at many sites like Chanhudaro, Lothal and Dholavira.

Question 5: Look at Fig. 1.30 and describe what you see. How is the body placed? What are the objects placed near it? Are there any artefacts on the body? Do these indicate the sex of the skeleton?

Answer 5: Following observations can be obtained after looking at the figure:

  • (i) The body is positioned in a north-south direction within a pit.
  • (ii) Many graves include pottery and ornamental objects, such as jars.
  • (iii) There is evidence of jewelry, such as bangles, found on the body.
  • (iv) The presence of jewelry like bangles indicates the skeleton is likely that of a woman.

From these observations, it can be concluded that there were significant social or economic differences among the people living in the Harappan Civilization. However, overall, it seems that the Harappans did not place a high value on burying precious items with the deceased.

[ Write a short essay (about 250-300 words) on the following: ] Class 12 history chapter 1 ncert solutions in English

Question 6: Describe some of the distinctive features of Mohenjodaro.

Answer 6: Mohenjodaro, one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, exhibits several distinctive features that highlight its advanced urban planning and architectural prowess. Some of the distinctive of Mohenjodaro are:

Planned City: Harappa was a planned urban centre. It had two parts. One part of the city was small .it was built on a higher place. The second part was comparatively large. it was built on a lower place. The first part was designed as citadel and the second part was a lower town. The Citadel owes its height to the fact that buildings were constructed on mud brick platforms. It was walled, which meant that it was physically separated from the Lower Town.

The lower town: The Lower Town was also walled. Several buildings were built on platforms, which served as foundations. it would have required four million person-days, in other words, mobilising labour on a very large scale. Once the platforms were in place, all building activity within the city was restricted to a fixed area on the platforms. So it seems that the settlement was first planned and then implemented accordingly. Other signs of planning include bricks, which, whether sun-dried or baked, were of a standardised ratio, where the length and breadth were four times and twice the height respectively. Such bricks were used at all Harappan settlements.

Drainage system: One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. roads and streets were laid out along an approximate “grid” pattern, intersecting at right angles. It seems that streets with drains were laid out first and then houses built along them. If domestic waste water had to flow into the street drains, every house needed to have at least one wall along a street.

The citadel: The Citadel owes its height to the fact that buildings were constructed on mud brick platforms. It was walled, which meant that it was physically separated from the Lower Town. It is on the Citadel that we find evidence of structures that were probably used for special public purposes. It includes Warehouses and Great bath which were the two important constructions.

Question 7: List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.

Answer 7: During the Harappan civilization, craft production relied on a variety of raw materials obtained through localized sourcing and long-distance trade.

Following is the list of raw matarial required for the craft production in the Harappan civilisation: Stones like carnelian (of a beautiful red colour), jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite; metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.

Some of the raw materials were locally available whereas some were purchase from the distant places. Soil and wood were locally available raw materials. Stones , fine quality wood , metals were procured from distant places.

The Harappans produced materials for craft production in various ways. For instance, they established settlements such as Nageshwar and Balakot in areas where shell was available. Other such sites were Shortughai, in far-off Afghanistan, near the best source of lapis lazuli, a blue stone that was apparently very highly valued, and Lothal which was near sources of carnelian (from Bharuch in Gujarat), steatite (from south Rajasthan and north Gujarat) and metal (from Rajasthan).

Another strategy for procuring raw materials may have been to send expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for copper) and south India (for gold). These expeditions established communication with local communities. There is evidence in the Khetri area for what archaeologists call the Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture, with its distinctive non-Harappan pottery and an unusual wealth of copper objects. It is possible that the inhabitants of this region supplied copper to the Harappans.

Question 8: Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past.

Answer 8: Archaeologists reconstruct the past by meticulously excavating ancient sites and analyzing various artifacts and remains. Here are the key points that illustrate this process:

Excavation and Artifacts: Archaeologists dig at sites related to ancient cultures or civilizations, uncovering artifacts such as seals, materials, remnants of houses and buildings, pottery, ornaments, tools, coins, weights, measurement devices, and toys. These findings provide insights into the daily life, economic activities, and technological advancements of past societies.

Human Remains and Bioarchaeology: The study of human remains, including skulls, bones, jaws, and teeth, along with materials buried with these bodies, helps archaeologists understand health, diet, life expectancy, and social status. Collaboration with botanists and zoologists allows for the examination of plant and animal remains, which sheds light on the diet, agriculture, and domestication practices of ancient populations.

Agricultural Tools and Irrigation: By discovering and analyzing tools used for cultivation and harvesting, archaeologists can infer the agricultural practices of ancient communities. Traces of wells, canals, and tanks reveal methods of irrigation, indicating the level of technological advancement and the management of water resources.

Stratigraphy and Socio-Economic Conditions: The examination of different layers at archaeological sites reveals chronological sequences of habitation and usage. Each layer provides a snapshot of the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the time, including religious practices and lifestyle.

Craft Production Centers: Tools, unfinished products, and waste materials found at excavation sites help identify centers of craft production. These findings offer clues about the organization of labor, trade, and economic activities.

Frames of Reference: Archaeologists develop frameworks of reference to interpret findings accurately. For example, the first Harappan seal was initially incomprehensible until it was placed within the broader cultural and chronological context, including comparisons with Mesopotamian artifacts.

Religious Beliefs and Seals: Seals are particularly valuable for understanding religious beliefs. They often depict religious scenes, mythical animals like the one-horned unicorn, and figures in yogic postures. These depictions help reconstruct the religious and cultural concepts of the period.

Through these methods, archaeologists piece together a comprehensive picture of ancient civilizations, offering valuable insights into human history and cultural evolution.

Question 9: Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in Harappan society.

Answer 9: The Harappan society, as seen through the lens of archaeological evidence, presents a complex and organized civilization that required sophisticated administrative functions. The debate about the nature of their political structure brings forth three main perspectives. One suggests a classless society with no rulers, another proposes multiple rulers, and a third posits centralized authority means It suggests that it is unlikely that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions.. The evidence aligns most convincingly with the idea of a centralized or organized ruling entity. Here’s a detailed discussion based on the given points:

Evidence of Complex Decision-Making: Evidence shows that complex decisions were indeed taken and implemented in Harappan society. The extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts, such as pottery, seals, weights, and bricks, indicates that significant, organized decisions were made.

Urban Planning and Infrastructure: The plans and layouts of cities were likely prepared under the guidance and supervision of rulers. This included the construction of big buildings, palaces, forts, tanks, wells, canals, and granaries.

Maintenance and Cleanliness: The responsibility for cleanliness fell to the rulers, who ensured that roads, lanes, and drains were constructed and maintained.

Economic Welfare: Rulers looked after the economic welfare by inspiring farmers to increase agricultural production and motivating craftsmen to promote various handicrafts. They also promoted both external and internal trade and issued commonly accepted coins or seals, weights, and measures.

Disaster Relief and Defense: Rulers were expected to provide relief during natural calamities, such as floods, earthquakes, and epidemics, by distributing grains and other necessities to the affected population. They also defended the city during foreign aggressions.

Question 10: On Map 1, use a pencil to circle sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. Mark an X against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites where raw materials were found.

Answer 10:

  • (i) Sites of agriculture: Harappa, Banawali, Kalibangan, Mohenjodaro, Dholavira (Gujarat).
  • (ii) Sites of craft production: Chanhudaro, Nageshwar, Balakot.
  • (iii) Sites of raw material: Nageshwar, Balakot, Khetri.

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