History Class 12 Chapter 4 question answer in english

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Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings questions and answers: Ncert Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings

ClassClass 12
ChapterChapter 4
Chapter NameThinkers, Beliefs and Buildings class 12 ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for History Class 12 Chapter 4 question answer in english? Now you can download Ncert Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

[ Answer in 100-150 words ] Class 12 History chapter 4 questions and answers in English

Question 1: Were the ideas of the Upanishadic thinkers different from those of the fatalists and materialists? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer 1: The ideas of the Upanishadic thinkers are not much different from those of the fatalists and materialists. This is brought out by the following arguments:

Pre-existing Philosophies: The essence of the philosophy of Jainism was already in existence in India, even before the birth of Lord Mahavir and Vardhaman. This indicates that many philosophical ideas were already prevalent and shared across different schools of thought.

Ahimsa (Non-violence): Ahimsa or non-violence is the most important principle of Jainism. But this also form the basic thought of Hindu religion. Thus, there is a lot of similarity between the both the streams of the religion. This similarity suggests that the Upanishadic thinkers shared common ground with other contemporary philosophies in terms of ethical principles.

Karma Theory: The Upanishads believe and teach the Karma Theory, which means that men and women should act and not worry about getting rewards. Fatalists also believed in the idea of work without thinking of the consequences. Both perspectives emphasize the importance of action and the inherent value of duty without attachment to outcomes, indicating a conceptual overlap.

Elements of Creation: Both fatalists and materialists believe that human beings are made of four elements: earth, water, sky, air, and fire. The Upanishadic thinkers also discuss these elements in their cosmological and metaphysical speculations, showing a shared understanding of the fundamental components of the universe.

Therefore, considering these points, we can agree that the ideas of the Upanishadic thinkers are not much different from those of the fatalists and materialists.

Question 2: Summarise the central teachings of Jainism.

Answer 2: The central teachings of Jainism are as follows :

  • The main ideology of Jainism is that they consider the entire world is animated: even stones, rocks and water have life.
  • The Jain philosophy promotes the idea of non-injury to living beings especially human beings, animals, plants, insects, etc.
  • They also propagate the idea of ahimsa i.e. non violence. They are completely against acts of violence.
  • They believe that the cycle of the birth and rebirth of an individual is based on his karma.
  • They emphasised practising Asceticism and penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma..
  • They also believed that to achieve salvation it is important to adopt monastic traditions.
  • Jaina monks and nuns took five vows: to abstain from killing, stealing and lying; to observe celibacy; and to abstain from possessing property.

Question 3: Discuss the role of the begums of Bhopal in preserving the stupa at Sanchi.

Answer 3: The Role Of The Begums Of Bhopal In Preserving The Stupa At Sanchi : –

  • The Nawab of Bhopal Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum allocated a large number of funds for the preservation of the funds.
  • They funded the museums that were built near the site and also a guesthouse. The activities like the publication of volumes on the site were also funded by them.
  • They have preserved the stupa from the railway contractors and builders.

Question 4: Read this short inscription and answer:

In the year 33 of the maharaja Huvishka (a Kushana ruler), in the first month of the hot season on the eighth day, a Bodhisatta was set up at Madhuvanaka by the bhikkhuni Dhanavati, the sister’s daughter of the bhikkhuni Buddhamita, who knows the Tipitaka, the female pupil of the bhikkhu Bala, who knows the Tipitaka, together with her father and mother.

  • (a) How did Dhanavati date her inscription?
  • (b) Why do you think she installed an image of the Bodhisatta?
  • (c) Who were the relatives she mentioned?
  • (d) What Buddhist text did she know?
  • (e) From whom did she learn this text?

Answer 4:

  • (a) Dhanavati dated her inscription that she placed the inscription at Madhuvanaka in the first month of the hot season on the eighth day in the year 33 of the Maharaja named Havishka.
  • (b) I think that she (the Bhikkhuni Dhanvati installed an image of the Bodhisatta to show that Mahayana sect of Budhhism was becoming popular day by day and Boddhisattas were considered great personalities in Buddhism during the reign of the Kushana rulers.
  • (c) She has mentioned her own mother’s sister’s name Buddhamita. The lady was a Bhikkuni. She had also mentioned Bhikkuni Bala and her parents.
  • (d) She knew the Tipitaka.
  • (e) She learnt the text from the Bhikkhuni Buddhamita who was the female pupil of the Bala.

Question 5: Why do you think women and men joined the sangha?

Answer 5: The main reasons why men and women join Sangha Should be as follows:

  • Avoiding Worldly Pleasures They wanted to remain away from worldly pleasures.
  • Simple and Disciplined Life The life in sanghas was simple and disciplined. They could deeply study the Buddhist philosophy by staying in the sanghas.
  • Teachers of Dhamma Many people entered the sanghas to become teachers of dhamma. They went on to become theris or respected women who had attained liberation.
  • Equality among the Followers of Sanghas All were considered equal in sanghas. There were kings, wealthy men and gahapatis. There were also the humble folk such as the workers, the slaves and the craftsmen. Nobody could retain earlier social identity after becoming a bhikkhu or bhikkhunis.
  • Democratic set up of Sanghas The internal functioning of the sangha was democratic. It emphasised consensus through discussions. If there was no consensus, decision was taken on the basis of votes.

[ Write a short essay (about 250-300 words) on the following: ] Class 12 history chapter 4 ncert solutions in English

Question 6: To what extent does knowledge of Buddhist literature help in understanding the sculpture at Sanchi?

Answer 6: Buddhist literature help us upto some extent in understanding the sculpture at Sanchi. It is important that the sculptures at Sanchi depict the teachings of Buddha only. The teachings of Buddha are captured in the literature. It is notable that Buddha used to roam around among people, preaching them on his teachings. However, he did not claim supernatural power. He told us that the world is ever changing.

It is full of sorrows. Sorrow flows out of desire. Buddha asked the followers to take the middle path, not too much of penance, nor too much of indulgence. The literature of Buddhism is useful for the interpretation of the sculpture at Sanchi. People are shown in different moods and in sorrow. Different stages of life are depicted and so on. Hence, it can be stated that Buddhist literature throws valuable light on the sculptures of the Sanchi.

Question 7: Figs. 4.32 and 4.33 are two scenes from Sanchi. Describe what you see in each of them, focusing on the architecture, plants and animals, and the activities. Identify which one shows a rural scene and which an urban scene, giving reasons for your answer.

Figs. 4.32
Figs. 4.33

Answer 7: In both the figure we see depiction of a way of life. In figure 1 we see more depiction of animals and plants. The depiction of how houses are built in this figure are very rural in the depiction. Houses looks as if they are built of mud and the roof are made of thatch. The way they are dressed on can deduce that they are farmer of they are hunter. There is also a depiction of a man with a bow. He could be hunter.

In figure 2 we see a very different depiction, with architecture that looks that a town. The pillar and the person depicted inside seems to be of high status as there is someone carrying an umbrella on top of him. The sculpture also shows as if the depiction is of a palace and its way of life. We are able to see some people in their activities.

From the above analysis we can safely presume the figure 1 depicts rural way of live whereas figure 2 depicts urban way of life.

Question 8: Discuss the development in sculpture and architecture associated with the rise of Vaishnavism and Shaivism.

Answer 8: Vaishnavism and Shaivism are the two branches of Hinduism. In case of Vaishnavism, Lord Vishnu was regarded as the chief deity. In case of Shaivism Lord Shiva was regarded as the chief deity. Both traditions were part of the Bhakti movement. Bhakti movement emphasised on the love and devotion of the devotee to : the God.

This tradition of Vaishnavism and Shaivism also impacted the tradition of architecture and sculpture. The temples developed the house deities. The initial temples were small and simple. It was a small room called Garbhagriha. Later it expanded, a tall structure was built on the garbhagriha. It was called Shikhara. The walls of the temple were decorated with suitors. Soon temples were built that had huge entrance and big halls for the comfort of visitors.

Many of these temples were carved out of rocks. These artificial caves were turned into temples. The tradition of article caves is old who had renounced the world. The most important were the Ajivikas, that developed as a sect during the reign of Asoka. Later a good example of the rock-cut temple is the Kailash Nath temple of the 8th Century.

It was carved out of a single piece rock. There is a copper plate inscription at the temple of Ellora wherein the sculptor exclaims, “How did I make it!” Sculpture was yet another way of expression. Deities were given many shapes and forms in the sculpture. Shiva has been shown in the form of Linga. Many deities have shown in different forms, sometimes grotesque. There were also combination of man and animal forms.

Question 9: Discuss how and why stupas were built.

Answer 9: How Were Stupas Built : – The construction of the stupas was made possible by the contribution of many. On the forefront were the monarchs. The Satvahan Kings offered huge amount for the construction of the stupqs. Apart from the monarchs, merchants, artisans and common men and women also contributed to the construction of the stupas. The structure of a stupa was like a dome and hemisphere. On the top of it, there would be a balcony called harmik. This balcony represented the abode of God. The harmik was covered with an umbrella. There used to be railings around the balcony.

Why Were Stupas Built : – About 200 years after the time of Buddha King Asoka erected a pillar at Lumbini. This was to announce the visit of Buddha to this place. Stupas were the mounds put on the bodily remains of the body of Lord Buddha or of any object that was used by him. At the place of stupas such objects were buried. These were places of great respect under the tradition of Buddhism, as they had the relics of Buddha. As per the description of Asokavadana winch a famous Buddhist book, Emperor Asoka gave Buddha’s relic to all major cities. Later on such places stupas were put. The most important stupas are at Sanchi, Bharhut and Saranath.

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