Class 12 political science chapter 4 india’s external relations notes

12 Class Political Science – II Chapter 4 India’s external relations Notes

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 4
Chapter NameIndia’s external relations
CategoryPolitical Science

class 12 political science chapter 4 india’s external relations notes here we will be learn about Principles of Foreign Policy; India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel; India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar; India’s Nuclear Programme etc.

Foreign Policy : –

🔹 Foreign Policy is a framework within which the Government of a given country conducts its relations with the outside world in different formats i.e. bilateral , regional and multilateral or global.

Developing Countries and Foreign Policy : –

🔹 The developing countries lack the required resources to effectively advocate their concerns in the international system. So they focus more on peace and development in their own neighborhood. Moreover , their economic and security dependence on the more powerful States occasionally influences their foreign policy. 

🔹 After the second world war , many developing nations chose to support the foreign policy preferences of the powerful countries who were giving them aid or credits. This resulted in the division of the countries of the world into two blocs :

  • 1. United States and its western allies.
  • 2 Soviet Union and its eastern allies.

India’s Foreign Policy : –

🔹 India’s Foreign Policy is influenced by both domestic and international factors. The foreign policy of independent India vigorously pursued the dream of a peaceful to world by advocating the policy of non alignment , by reducing the cold war tension and by contributing human resources to the UN peacekeeping force . India advocated non alignment as the ideal foreign policy approach.

Nehru’s Role in India’s Foreign Policy : –

🔹 Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru played a significant role in setting the national agenda. He was also the Foreign Minister so he greatly influenced the formulation and implementation of India’s Foreign Policy from 1946 to 1964

The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy : –

🔹 His Foreign Policy was based on three major objectives :-

  • To preserve the hard – earned sovereignty.
  • To protect territorial integrity of India.
  • To promote rapid economic development.

Principles of India’s foreign policy : – 

🔹 The Principles of India’s foreign policy and its objectives are closely interlinked with each other. Some of these principles are discussed below : –

  • NAM 
  • Panchsheel ( five principles of peaceful co – existence ) 
  • Staunch supporter of the decolonisation process 
  • Firmly opposed Racism , especially apartheid in South Africa 
  • Peaceful world 
  • Independently and actively participation in international affairs 
  • Disarmament 

🔹 While adhering to these core principles , India has continuously adapted to the changing external circumstances and shifting domestic needs. Economic dimensions are now an important element in India’s foreign policy.

Panchsheel : –

🔹 Nehru signed a peace agreement with China and advocated adherence to five guilding principles known as Panchsheel. 

🔹 Panchsheel was signed on 28th April , 1954 and since then it has become a guiding principle of India’s bilateral relations with other countries also.

🔹 Panchsheel includes the following five principles of foreign policy :-

  • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • Non – aggression against each other.
  • Non – interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  • Equality and mutual benefit.
  • Peaceful co – existence.

Afro – Asian Unity : –

🔹 Throughout 1940’s and 1950’s , Nehru had been an ardent advocate of Asian Unity. Under his leadership , India convened the Asian Relations Conference in March 1947 , five months ahead of attaining its independence. Convened an international conference in 1949 to support Indonesia’s freedom struggle from the Dutch colonial regime.

🔹 The Afro Asian Conference was held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955 commonly known as the Bandung Conference. The Bandung Conference later led to the establishment of the Non – Aligned Movement ( NAM ).

Policy of Non – Alignment : –

🔹 Non – alignment is a core element to maintain independence in foreign affairs by not joining any military allaince formed by the USA and Soviet Union. It postulates taking an independent stand on international issues according to the merits of each case but at the same time not committing to coming under the influence of any military bloc.

Non – Aligned Movement ( NAM ) : –

🔹 The First Summit of the NAM was held in Belgrade in September 1961 under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia , Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt , Jawaharlal Nehru of India , Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Sukarno of Indonesia.

Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes : –

🔹 This principle has been included in the Constitution of India , under the Directive Principles of State Policy as well as in the Charter of the UN. India has played leading role in the resolution of Korean conflict and supported negotiated settlement of Palestine issue , Kashmir problem , border problems with neighbouring countries and other such disputes.

India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations : –

🔹 India’s relations with other nations are an important part of India’s foreign policy. It is discussed below in detail.

India’s Relationship with USA : –

🔹 During the cold war years , India was close to the USSR. After the collapse of the USSR , India has liberalised its economy and integrated it with the global economy.

🔹 India – US bilateral relations today not only encompass the major pillars of our strategic partnership including security , energy and technology – but have deepened with greater bilateral economic engagement and ever increasing people.

🔹 India – US relations have become increasingly multi – faceted , covering cooperation in areas such as trade , defence and security , education , science and technology , civil nuclear energy , space technology and applications , environment , and health.

🔹 The US is India’s largest trading partner in goods and services. 

  • The overall India – US bilateral trade in goods and services has increased from US $ 126 billion in 2017 to US $ 142 billion in 2018. 
  • In 2019-2020 the bilateral trade between the USA and India stood at USD : 88.75 billion. 

🔹 Cooperation in counter – terroris with intelligence sharing , information exchange , operational cooperation and sharing of counter – terrorism technology and equipment. 

  • The US absorbs about 65 % of India’s total export in the software sector. 
  • 300,000 Indians work in Silicon Valley. 
  • 15 % of all high tech starts – up are by the Indian – American. 
  • 35 % of the technical staff of Boeing is estimated to be of Indian Origin. 

🔹 The Indian American community enjoys great reputation and significant influence on the American society and polity with its large number of professionals , business entrepreneurs and educationalists marking their positive presence on the national scene. Almost 40 % of Indians in the United States have a master’s , doctorate or other professional degree , which is about five times the national average.

India’s Relationship with Russia : – 

🔹 India’s relations with Russia are an important aspect of India’s foreign policy. Indo Russia relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions. 

  • Russia and India share a vision of a multipolar world order. 
  • More than 80 bilateral agreements have been signed between India and Russia as part of the Indo Russian Strategic Agreement of 2001.

🔹 India stands to benefit from its relationship with Russia on issues like Kashmir , energy supplies , sharing information on international terrorism , access to Central Asia and balancing its relations with China. 

  • Russia stands to benefit from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia. 
  • The Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. 
  • India is an oil importing Nation , Russia has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crisis. 
  • India is seeking to increase its energy imports from Russia.
  • Russia is important for India’s nuclear energy plants. 
  • Russia assisted India’s space industry by giving , for example the cryogenic rocket when India needed it.
  • Russia and India have collaborated on various scientific projects.

India – China Relation : –

🔹 After the Chinese revolution in 1949 , India was one of the first countries to recognise the communist government. The Panchsheel Agreement ( The Five Principles of Peaceful Co – existence ) signed by the Indian Prime Minister Nehru and the Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai on 29 April 1954. 

🔹 Indian and Chinese leaders visited each other’s country and were greeted by large and friendly crowds. The slogan of ‘ Hindi – Chini – Bhai – Bhai ‘ was popular. 

🔹 Diplomatic relations between the two countries downgraded until 1976. A series of talks to resolve the border issue were also initiated in 1981. 

🔹 Both States also signed agreements on cultural exchanges and cooperation in Science and Technology and opened four border posts for trade. Bilateral trade between India and China has increased from $ 338 million in 1992 to more than $ 70 billion in 2016.

Political visits India and China : –

🔹 Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China in December 1988 provided the impetus for an improvement in India China relations.

🔹 In 1993 , the signing of an Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control ( LAC ) on the India – China Border Areas during Prime Minister Narasimha Rao’s visit reflected the growing stability and substance in bilateral ties.

🔹 During Prime Minister Atal Biltari Vajpayee’s visit in 2003 , India and China signed a Declaration on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation and also mutually decided to appoint Special Representatives ( SRs ) to explore the framework of a boundary settlement from the political perspective. 

🔹 During the State Visit of Chinese President Mr. Xi Jinping visited India from 17 to 19 September 2014 , a total of 16 agreements were signed in various sectors including , commerce & trade , railways , space -cooperation , pharmaceuticals , audio – visual co – production , culture , establishment of industrial parks , sister – city agreements etc. Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited China from May 14-16 , 2015 .

🔹 President Pranab Mukherjee made a state visit to China from May 24 to 27 , 2016. 

🔹 In April 2018 Prime Minister Modi and President Xi held the first informal Summit in Wuhan to exchange views on overarching issues of bilateral and global importance.

🔹 The bilateral ties continued to strengthen and deepen in the year 2019 with the Second Informal Summit between Prime Minister Modi and President Xi held in Chennai on 11-12 October 2019.

🔹 The Kailash Manasarovar Yatra is organised. In 2019 , a total of 18 batches comprising 1005 Yatris through Lipulekh Pass and 10 batches comprising 341 Yatris through Nathu – La Pass undertook the Yatra.

Confilt between India and china : –

🔹 Both States were involved in differences arising from the Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 and the final settlement of the Sino- Indian border.

🔹 China and India were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over competing territorial claims Principally in Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksal Chin region of Ladakh. 

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