12 Class Political Science – II Chapter 3 Politics of planned development Notes
|Subject||Political Science 2nd book|
|Chapter Name||Politics of planned development|
Class 12th Political Science – II Chapter 3 Politics of planned development Notes here we will be learn about Changing nature of India’s Economic Development Planning Commission and Five Year Plans, National Development Council, NITI Aayog etc.
Planning : –
🔹 Planning is to make future plans for the best use of existing resources. India’s economic development includes economic growth and social justice. Government has to play an important role in the economic development of India.
Development : –
🔹 ‘ Development ‘ has a different meaning for different sections of the people. People often refer to the ‘ West ‘ as the standard for measuring development. ‘ Development ‘ was about becoming more ‘ modern ‘ and about becoming more like the industrialised countries of the West.
Economic Development : –
🔹 Economic development is defined as a sustained improvement in material well – being of society.
Objectives of planning : –
🔹 The objectives of planning are to make economy self – reliant and self – generating through planned strategies and to activate distributive justice among various sectors of economy.
‘ Left wing ‘ in politics : –
🔹 These refer to the position of concerned party in the group. The left signifies to favour the poor and downtrodden section of society through government policies.
‘ Right wing ‘ in politics : –
🔹 These refer to the position of concerned party in the group. The right signifies to favour free economy in the market , not to be intervened unnecessarily by the government.
J.C. Kumarappa : –
🔹 J.C.Kumarappa was an Indian economist and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi. A pioneer of rural economic development theories , Kumarappa is credited for developing economic theories based on Gandhism – a school of economic thought . He coined ‘ Gandhian economics ‘. He was the author of ‘ Economy of Permanence ‘ and a member of planning commission.
Changing Nature of India’s Economic Development : –
🔹 Economic development Changed in India in 3 phases : –
- 1. At the Time of Independence
- 2. After independence till two decades About 1950-1970 )
- 3. From 1991 onwards
🔶 1. At the time of Independence ( models of development in India )
🔹 At the time of independence , criteria for development means to follow western countries. There were two models of development at the time of Independence
- ( i ) Capitalist Model and
- ( ii ) Socialist Model.
🔹 India adopted a Mixed Economy Model which was the combination of both the model i.e. capitalist and socialist model.
🔶 2. After Independence till two decades ( About 1950-1970 ) : –
🔹 During this phase more importance was given to the Public Sector. Public sectors are the group of those industrial units which are controlled and owned by the government. For example – Hindustan Machine tools ( HMT ) , Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. ( BHEL ) and Indian Oil Corporation ( IDC ) .
🔶 3. From 1991 onwards : –
🔹 Due to the end of bi – polarity , disintegration of Soviet Union and Unipolar world only liberal – capitalist system was prevalent in the world. Therefore , era of liberalization , privation and globalization started.
🔹 Accordingly , India also changed its economic policies and opened its economy.
Socialist Economy : –
🔹 An economic setup in which the upliftment of society as a whole is focused in comparison to upliftment of the private sector
Capitalist Economy : –
🔹 An economic setup in which the upliftment of private sector is focused in comparison to
upliftment of the society as a whole.
Mixed Economy : –
🔹 There are two models of development : Private sector in which capitalists own the resources and means of production and public sector in which private property is abolished and means of production are owned by the state. India adopted elements from both these models and therefore , its economy was called mixed economy.
Bombay Plan : –
🔹 A group of industrialists prepared a resolution in 1944 for economic development of India. This is also known as the Bombay Plan.
Planning Commission ( Yojna Aayog ) : –
🔹 Planning Commission ( Yojna Asyog ) was established on 15 March 1950. It was a non- constitutional body and established by a resolution of goveronment , Prime Minister is the ex – officio chaieperson of Yojna Aayog.
🔶 Objectives of Planning Commission : –
- To make an assessment in the material , capital and human resources of India.
- To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation of country’s resources.
- To appraise the progress of plans.
Five Years Plans : –
🔹 It means to make plans for five years for the economic development of the country.
🔶 First Five years Plan ( 1951-56 ) : – Main focus of this plan was agriculture. Investment was made on Dams and means of irrigation during this plan. Bhakhra Nangal Dam project is its example.
🔶 Second Five Years Plan ( 1956-61 ) : – Main focus of this plan was Industry. Heavy duties were levied on import to protect domestic industries. This plan was formulated by P.C. Mahalnobis.
Short note on Second Five Year Plan : –
🔹 The second Five Year Plan was launched on 1st April , 1956. It was much bigger and bolder than the first. It was observed by the planning commission that the second five year plan has to carry forward the process initiated in the First Plan period. It must provide for a larger increase in production , in investment and in employment.
🔹The principal task was to ensure an increase in national income by about 25 percent over the five years , to increase employment opportunities at a rate sufficient to absorb the increase in the labour force , consequent on the increase in population and to take a major stride forward in the direction of industrialisation so as to prepare the ground for more rapid advance in the plan period to come.
Kerala Model : –
🔹 For development and planning education , health , land reforms , food distribution and abolition of poverty were emphasized.
The National Development Council ( NDC ) : –
🔹 The National Development Council was established on 6 August 1952 , by an executive resolution of the Government of India on the recommendation of the First Five Year plan. It is a non – constitutional Body / Advisory Body.
NDC and Development : –
🔹 Its first chairman and India’s first Prime Minister Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru stated that the NDC is essentially a forum for ” intimate cooperation ” between State governments and the Centre for all the tasks of national development.
Objectives of NDC : –
- To secure co – operation of the states in the execution of the plan.
- To strengthen and mobilize the effort and resources of the nation in support of the plan.
- To promote common economic policies in all vital spheres.
- To ensure the balanced and rapid development of all parts of the country.
- To improve the living standard of the people.
- To increase the per – capita income.
Functions of NDC : –
- To prescribe guidelines for the formulation of the National Plan.
- To consider the National Plan as formulated by the Yojana Aayog.
- To make an assessment of the resources that are required for implementing the Plan and to suggest measures for augmenting them.
- To consider important questions of social and economic policy affecting national development.
- To review the working of the Plan from time to time.
- To recommend measures for achievement of the aims and targets set out in the national Plan.
NITI Aayog : –
🔹 NITI stands for
- N – National
- I – Institution for
- T – Transforming
- I – India
🔹 NITI Aayog , was formed by a resolution of the Union Cabinet on January 1 , 2015. It is also a non – constitutional body / advisory body.
Need for Establishment NITI Aaayog : –
- After independence a Planning Commission based on socialist model was formed for the planned development of India.
- But in the era of globalization , especially in the 21st century Yojana Aayog was becoming ineffective and irrelevant to face the pressing challenges of development.
- Political , Economical , Social and Technical scenario of the country has changed .
- Now India has strive to become a developed Nation.
- Hence , during his Independence Day speech on 15 August 2014 , our present Prime Minister talked about the abolition of the Planning Commission and NITI Aayog was constituated in place of planning commission on 1st January 2015.
Objectives of NITI Aayog : –
🔹 To evolve a shared vision of national development priorities , sectors and strategies with the active involvement of the States.
🔹 To foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on a continuous basis , recognizing that strong States make a strong nation .
🔹 To ensure , in areas that are specifically referred to it , that the interests of national security are incorporated in economic strategy and policy.
Composition of NITI Aayog : –
- Chairman Prime minister ( EX – officio member )
- Vice – Chairman
- Chief ministers of states
- Chief ministers / Administrators of UTS
- Full time members
- Part time members
- EX – Officio members
🔹 The Prime Minister of India is the ex – officio chairman of NITI Aayog. He appoints its vice – Chairperson. The first Vice – Chairperson of the NITI Aayog was Sh . Arvind Panagaria. Dr. Rajiv Kumar is its present Vice – Chairperson.
Salient Features of NITI Aayog : –
- Serves as a Government Think Tank.
- Fosters cooperative Federalism.
- Empowers the state to make a strong Nation.
- Maintain coordination between National Security and Economic policies.
- Provides strategic and technical advice on policy matters.
Difference between Planning Commission and NITI Aayog : –
|Planning Commission||NITI Aayog|
|Its approach is Top Down Approach.||Its approach is Bottom Up Approach.|
|Decisions are taken at local level.||Decisions were taken at center.|
|Plans fits to all size.||Co – operative Federalism.|
|Centre had more powers.||Participation of all the states.|
|Limited role of the states.||States are empowered.|
|No power to allocate funds.||Fund allocation powers were given.|
Challenges of nation building
Era of one party Dominance
Politics of Planned Development
India’s External Relations
Challenges to and restoration of the congress system
The Crisis of Democratic Order
Rise of Popular Movements ( Deleted )
Recent Developments in Indian Politics