Political Science Class 12 chapter 1 question answers in english

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The end of bipolarity class 12 question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science the end of bipolarity

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 1
Chapter NameThe end of bipolarity ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions
MediumEnglish

Are you looking for Political Science Class 12 chapter 1 question answers in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science the end of bipolarity pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Which among the following statements that describe the nature of Soviet economy is wrong?

  • a. Socialism was the dominant ideology
  • b. State ownership/control existed over the factors of production
  • c. People enjoyed economic freedom
  • d. Every aspect of the economy was planned and controlled by the State

Answer 1: c. People enjoyed economic freedom

Question 2: Arrange the following in chronological order:

  • a. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • b. Fall of the Berlin Wall
  • c. Disintegration of the Soviet Union
  • d. Russian Revolution

Answer 2: Based on these dates, the chronological order is:

  1. d. Russian Revolution (1917)
  2. a. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)
  3. b. Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989)
  4. c. Disintegration of the Soviet Union (1991)

Question 3: Which among the following is NOT an outcome of the disintegration of the USSR?

  • a. End of the ideological war between the US and USSR
  • b. Birth of CIS
  • c. Change in the balance of power in the world order
  • d. Crises in the Middle East

Answer 3: d. Crises in the Middle East

Question 4: Match the following:

i. Mikhail Gorbacheva. Successor of USSR
ii. Shock Therapyb. Military pact
iii. Russiac. Introduced reforms
iv. Boris Yeltsind. Economic model
v. Warsawe. President of Russia

Answer 4:

i. Mikhail Gorbachevc. Introduced reforms
ii. Shock Therapyd. Economic model
iii. Russiaa. Successor of USSR
iv. Boris Yeltsine. President of Russia
v. Warsawb. Military pact

Question 5: Fill in the blanks.

  • a. The Soviet political system was based on _______ideology.
  • b. _____ was the military alliance started by the USSR.
  • c. ________ party dominated the Soviet Union’s political system.
  • d. __________ initiated the reforms in the USSR in 1985.
  • e. The fall of the ________ symbolised the end of the Cold War.

Answer 5:

  • a. The Soviet political system was based on socialist ideology.
  • b. Warsaw Pact was the military alliance started by the USSR.
  • c. Communist party dominated the Soviet Union’s political system.
  • d. Mikhail Gorbachev initiated the reforms in the USSR in 1985.
  • e. The fall of the Berlin Wall symbolized the end of the Cold War.

Question 6: Mention any three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US.

Answer 6: The Soviet economy had several features that distinguished it from a capitalist country like the US:

1. Complex Communications Network and Vast Energy Resources:

Soviet Economy: The Soviet economy was supported by a complex communications network and vast energy resources, including oil, iron, and steel. It had a well-developed machinery production sector and an efficient transport system that connected even the remotest areas of the country.

US Economy: In contrast, while the US also had advanced communication and transport networks, the driving force was private enterprise and competition rather than state control.

2. Domestic Consumer Industry:

Soviet Economy: The Soviet Union had a domestic consumer industry that produced a wide range of goods, from pins to cars. However, the quality of these products often did not match those produced in Western capitalist countries.

US Economy: The US consumer industry, driven by competition and innovation in the market, generally produced higher-quality goods and a greater variety of products to meet consumer demand.

3. Government-Subsidized Welfare:

Soviet Economy: The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens by subsidizing basic necessities, including health, education, childcare, and other welfare schemes. This state support was aimed at providing a safety net for all citizens.

US Economy: In the US, while there were social welfare programs, they were not as comprehensive or universally accessible as in the Soviet Union. The capitalist system emphasized individual responsibility and private provision of services, with less direct government intervention in ensuring a minimum standard of living.

These features highlight the planned and state-controlled nature of the Soviet economy, contrasting with the market-driven and competitive environment of the US economy.

Question 7: What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?

Answer 7: The factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the USSR were:

(i) Technological and Information Gap: Gorbachev aimed to modernize the Soviet Union to keep up with Western advancements in technology and information flow, recognizing the USSR’s lagging behind.

(ii) Normalization of Relations with the West: To ease Cold War tensions and improve diplomatic and economic relations with Western countries, which were crucial for economic development and global stability.

(iii) Democratization of the Soviet System: Gorbachev sought to introduce political reforms like glasnost and perestroika to increase transparency, political pluralism, and citizen participation in governance.

(iv) Reduction of Administrative Privileges: Addressing inefficiencies and inequalities within the Soviet bureaucratic system, ensuring fairer distribution of resources and opportunities among the population.

Question 8: What were the major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India?

Answer 8: The disintegration of the Soviet Union had significant consequences for countries like India, influenced by several key factors:

End of Cold War Dynamics: With the end of the Soviet Union, the Cold War confrontations and ideological disputes between the two superpowers, the US and USSR, came to an end. This created a more stable global environment with reduced geopolitical tensions.

Shift in Military Alliances and World Peace: Military alliances associated with the Cold War were dismantled, leading to a growing demand for world peace and security. This allowed countries like India to recalibrate their foreign policies without the pressures of superpower rivalry.

Emergence of Multipolar World Order: The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the emergence of a multipolar world where no single power could dominate. This provided opportunities for groups of countries, such as those in the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), including India, to play more influential roles in global politics.

Rise of the US as the Sole Superpower and Economic Influence: The disintegration left the United States as the sole superpower, leading to the dominance of capitalist economies at the international level. Institutions like the World Bank and IMF gained significant influence due to their economic support to countries during their transitional periods.

Promotion of Liberal Democracy: The idea of liberal democracy gained traction as a preferred political system globally. Many newly independent countries, including former Soviet republics, embraced liberal democratic principles in organizing their political life.

Formation of New Independent States: The disintegration of the Soviet Union resulted in the formation of many new independent countries, each with their own aspirations and choices. This diversity allowed India to forge new diplomatic ties and partnerships based on shared interests.

Geopolitical Realignment in Europe and Asia: Baltic and East European states sought integration into the European Union and NATO, while Central Asian countries leveraged their strategic geographical positions to maintain ties with Russia, the West, China, and other global players. This geopolitical realignment influenced India’s strategic calculus and diplomatic engagements.

Question 9: What was Shock Therapy? Was this the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism?

Answer 9: The disintegration of the Soviet Union resulted in the fall of communism, followed by a painful transition in the former communist regimes, that is, Russia, East European countries and Central Asia from an authoritarian socialist system to a liberal democratic capitalist system. This model of transformation influenced by international financial institutions like the World Bank and the IMF came to be regarded as ‘Shock Therapy’.

This was not the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism due to following drawbacks:

(i) Loss of Industries: Russia lost about 90% of its state-controlled industrial complex through rapid privatization, often at undervalued prices. This resulted in a massive transfer of wealth to private individuals and companies, which didn’t necessarily benefit the broader economy.

(ii) Unplanned Privatization: The transition created what was termed “the largest garage sale in history,” where industries were sold off hastily and often without strategic planning. This led to the disappearance of entire sectors and left many parts of the economy in disarray.

(iii) Social Welfare Destruction: The old system of social welfare was systematically dismantled, leaving many vulnerable people without support systems they had relied on previously.

(iv) Economic Decline: The Russian currency, the ruble, experienced dramatic devaluation due to high inflation rates. Real GDP also declined significantly between 1989 and 1999, indicating a severe economic downturn.

(v) Emergence of Mafia: With the withdrawal of government subsidies and the rapid privatization process, organized crime, particularly mafia groups, gained significant influence over economic activities, further destabilizing the economy and society.

(vi) Increased Economic Inequality: Privatization and the introduction of market forces led to new economic disparities, creating a stark divide between the rich and the poor in Russia. This economic inequality exacerbated social tensions and contributed to long-term social and economic challenges.

(vii) Humanitarian Impact: Overall, the shock therapy approach brought economic ruin to the region and inflicted widespread hardship on the population. Instead of fostering sustainable growth and prosperity, it resulted in a period of economic and social instability.

Question 10: Write an essay for or against the following proposition: “With the disintegration of the second world, India should change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US rather than with traditional friends like Russia”.

Answer 10: India should not change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with US, but India is required to maintain healthy relations with Russia because India has experienced a long band of mutual trust, interests and popular perceptions with Russia in the following manner:

(i) Shared Vision of Multipolarity: Russia and India have historically aligned in advocating for a multipolar world order, where power is distributed among several major countries. This vision promotes collective security, greater regionalism, and democratization in international decision-making forums such as the United Nations. This shared perspective fosters a natural alignment of interests that strengthens bilateral relations.

(ii) Long-standing Strategic Partnership: The Indo-Russia Strategic Agreement of 2001 laid the foundation for over 80 bilateral agreements covering a wide range of areas including defense, energy, trade, and culture. This enduring partnership has built a robust framework of cooperation that spans decades, based on mutual trust and shared interests.

(iii) Strategic Benefits: India derives significant strategic benefits from its relationship with Russia. Russia has consistently supported India on critical issues such as Kashmir, provided reliable energy supplies, and collaborated closely on combating international terrorism. Additionally, Russia facilitates India’s access to Central Asia, which is strategically important for India’s regional influence and economic interests.

(iv) Technological Collaboration: Russia remains a crucial partner for India’s technological advancements, particularly in nuclear energy and space technology. Cooperation in these fields has been pivotal for India’s growth in areas such as nuclear power generation and space exploration, including the supply of cryogenic rocket technology.

(v) Economic Partnerships: Beyond defense and technology, Russia has also been involved in economic partnerships with India, particularly in sectors such as oil and gas. Investments and partnerships in oil fields in Russia and its republics like Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan have contributed to India’s energy security and economic development.

(vi) Defense Cooperation: Russia is India’s largest defense supplier, providing the majority of India’s military hardware. This longstanding defense relationship includes joint production and technology transfer agreements, enhancing India’s defense capabilities and military preparedness.

(vii) Scientific and Cultural Collaboration: The relationship between Russia and India extends beyond strategic and economic dimensions to encompass scientific collaboration and cultural exchanges. Joint scientific projects and cultural initiatives deepen people-to-people ties and contribute to mutual understanding and cooperation.

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