Political Science Class 12 chapter 2 question answers in english

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Contemporary centres of power class 12 question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Contemporary centres of power

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 2
Chapter NameContemporary centres of power ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for Political Science Class 12 chapter 2 question answers in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science contemporary centres of power pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Arrange the following in chronological order.

  • a. China’s accession to WTO
  • b. Establishment of the EEC
  • c. Establishment of the EU
  • d. Birth of ARF

Answer 1:

  • (b) Establishment of the EEC: March 25, 1957
  • (c) Establishment of the EU: November 1, 1993
  • (d) Birth of ARF: July 25, 1994
  • (a) China’s accession to WTO: December 11, 2001

Question 2: The ‘ASEAN Way’

  • a. Reflects the life style of ASEAN members
  • b. A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative
  • c. The defence policy followed by the ASEAN members
  • d. The road that connects all the ASEAN members

Answer 2: b. A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative

Question 3: Which of the following nations adopted an ‘open door’ policy?

  • (a) China
  • (b) South Korea
  • (c) Japan
  • (d) USA

Answer 3: (a) China

Question 4: Fill in the blanks:

  • (a) The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over…….. and …….. region.
  • (b) ARF was established in the year……..
  • (c) China entered into bilateral relations with ………(a major country) in 1972.
  • (d) ………..plan influenced the establishment of the organization for European Economic Cooperation in 1948.
  • (e)……….. is the organization of ASEAN that deals with security.

Answer 4:

  • a. The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin region.
  • b. ARF was established in the year 1994.
  • c. China entered into bilateral relations with the US (a major country) in 1972.
  • d. Marshall Plan influenced the establishment of the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation in 1948.
  • e. Asian Regional Forum is the organisation of ASEAN that deals with security.

Question 5: What are the objectives of establishing regional organisations?

Answer 5: The regional organisations are established with the following objectives:

  • Economic Cooperation: Promote economic growth and development through trade and investment cooperation.
  • Political Stability: Enhance political stability and peace among member countries.
  • Collective Security: Provide a framework for mutual defense and security cooperation.
  • Social and Cultural Exchange: Foster social and cultural exchanges to build a sense of regional identity and community.
  • Address Common Issues: Collaborate on common regional issues such as environmental protection, disaster management, and combating transnational crime.
  • Diplomatic Influence: Increase the collective bargaining power and diplomatic influence of member countries on the global stage.

Question 6: How does geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations?

Answer 6: Geographical proximity influences the formation of regional organizations in several ways, as:

(i) Historical Enmities and Weaknesses:

  • Conflict Resolution: Geographical proximity often leads to historical conflicts; regional organizations help resolve these enmities to ensure stability.
  • Collective Security: Neighboring countries may form alliances to protect against common threats, enhancing regional security and cooperation.

(ii) Similar Interests:

  • Economic Integration: Countries with shared economic interests benefit from collaboration, leading to regional organizations that facilitate trade and economic growth.
  • Cultural and Social Cooperation: Proximity often results in shared cultural and social values, fostering political and social partnerships.

(iii) Economic Potential:

  • Resource Sharing: Geographically close countries can efficiently share and manage resources, leading to mutually beneficial economic relationships.
  • Market Expansion: Proximity allows for easier trade and market integration, enhancing economic development and regional prosperity.

Question 7: What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?

Answer 7: The components of ASEAN Vision 2020 are:

(i) Outward-Looking Role in the International Community: ASEAN aimed to engage actively with the global community, promoting cooperation, dialogue, and partnerships beyond its borders.

(ii) Encouraging Negotiations Over Conflicts in the Region: ASEAN sought to resolve disputes peacefully through dialogue and diplomacy. Notably, it played a mediating role in ending conflicts such as the Cambodian conflict and the East Timor Crisis.

(iii) Annual Discussions on East Asian Cooperation: ASEAN envisioned regular discussions among East Asian nations to enhance cooperation, foster stability, and promote shared prosperity.

These components of the ASEAN Vision 2020 underscore its commitment to regional stability, peaceful conflict resolution, and active participation in the international community.

Question 8: Name the pillars and the objectives of the ASEAN Community

Answer 8: The ASEAN community established the following three pillars:

(i) ASEAN Security Community:

  • Objective: Ensure that territorial disputes do not escalate into armed confrontations.

(ii) ASEAN Economic Community:

  • Objective: Accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
  • Objective: Create Free Trade Areas for investments, labor, and services.

(iii) ASEAN Socio-cultural Community:

  • Objective: Promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations Charter.

The objectives of ASEAN community are as follows::

  • Prevent Armed Confrontations: Territorial disputes should be managed to avoid military conflicts.
  • Economic Growth and Development: Foster economic growth through social and cultural advancements.
  • Regional Peace and Stability: Promote peace and stability by adhering to the rule of law and UN principles.
  • Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Establish mechanisms to resolve economic disputes.
  • Free Trade Areas: Facilitate the creation of Free Trade Areas for investments, labor, and services.

Question 9: In what ways does the present Chinese economy differs from its command economy?

Answer 9: differences between the present Chinese economy and its previous command economy:

(i) Transition from Stagnancy to Growth: The present Chinese economy departed from the stagnation of the command economy by implementing the ‘open door policy’. This policy aimed to attract foreign investment and introduce modern technology, leading to higher productivity and economic growth.

(ii) Privatization and Industrial Recovery: Unlike the command economy, which struggled with industrial production, the present Chinese economy revitalized its industries through privatization initiatives. This included reforms in agriculture and industry, fostering innovation and efficiency.

(iii) Trade Liberalization and Economic Zones: The present Chinese economy introduced new trading laws and established Special Economic Zones (SEZs). These reforms facilitated a significant increase in foreign trade and investment, contrasting sharply with the minimal international trade and low per capita income characteristic of the command economy era.

Question 10: How did the European countries resolve their post-Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.

Answer 10: After the end of Second World War in 1945, the European States confronted the ruin of their economies and the destruction of assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded.

European countries resolved their Post Second World War problems in the following manner:

  • Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the USA provided financial help to revive European economy.
  • The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO.
  • Under the ‘Marshall Plan’ the organisation for European Economic Cooperation was established in 1948 to extend cooperation on trade and economic issues among the Western European States.
  • European Union was founded in 1992 for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs and creation of a single currency. It evolved from an economic union to political one over time.

The following attempts led to the formation of European Union:

  • The Council of Europe was established in 1949 for political cooperation.
  • The process of economic integration of European Capitalist countries led to the formation of European Economic Community in 1957.
  • The above mentioned processes acquired a political dimension with the creation of European Parliament.
  • The collapse of Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of European Union in 1992.

Question 11: What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organisation?

Answer 11: The European Union (EU) is a highly influential regional organization due to several key factors across economic, political, diplomatic, and military domains:

  • Economic Influence:

Trade Dominance: The EU holds a significant position in world trade, with a share three times larger than that of the United States. This economic clout allows the EU to exert substantial influence in global economic policies and negotiations.

Currency Power: The Euro, the EU’s common currency, represents a major alternative to the US dollar, potentially challenging its global dominance in financial markets. This gives the EU leverage in international monetary affairs.

Trade Bloc Dynamics: As a unified economic bloc, the EU wields considerable influence within international bodies like the World Trade Organization (WTO), shaping global trade rules and regulations.

  • Political and Diplomatic Influences:

UN Security Council Representation: Two EU member states, Britain and France, hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council. This allows them to directly influence global security and peacekeeping efforts through their veto powers and diplomatic strategies.

Diplomatic Leverage: Beyond its Security Council representation, the EU as a collective entity plays a significant role in international diplomacy. It engages in dialogue and negotiations on a wide range of issues, from human rights to environmental policies, enhancing its global diplomatic footprint.

Soft Power: The EU leverages its economic and diplomatic clout to promote its values and norms globally, influencing international agendas and fostering cooperation among nations.

  • Military Influence:

Combined Military Strength: The EU possesses the second-largest combined armed forces in the world, after the United States. This military capability enables the EU to contribute significantly to global peacekeeping operations and crisis management efforts.

Defense Expenditure: Its total military expenditure ranks second globally, underscoring its commitment to defense and security both within its borders and in partnership with international allies.

Nuclear Capabilities: Two key EU member states, Britain and France, maintain significant nuclear arsenals, enhancing the EU’s strategic deterrence capabilities and global influence in nuclear disarmament discussions.

Technological Prowess: The EU is a major player in space and communications technology, contributing advanced capabilities that support its military and civilian infrastructure needs.

In conclusion, the EU’s influence as a supranational organization stems from its robust economic stature, formidable political and diplomatic engagements, and substantial military capabilities. These factors collectively elevate the EU’s role on the global stage, enabling it to shape international policies and agendas in multiple critical domains.

Question 12: The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.

Answer 12: Agreement with the Statement: The Emerging Economies of China and India Have Great Potential to Challenge the Unipolar World

Breaking Economic Stagnancy:

  • India: Post-1991 economic reforms, India liberalized its economy, encouraging foreign investment, and modernizing its industrial base.
  • China: Since the late 1970s, China implemented economic reforms, transitioning from a planned economy to a market-oriented one, which drastically improved its economic performance.

Special Economic Zones (SEZs):

  • India: The establishment of SEZs has significantly boosted India’s manufacturing and export capabilities, attracting foreign investments.
  • China: SEZs like Shenzhen have transformed into major economic hubs, contributing massively to China’s GDP and making it a global manufacturing powerhouse.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

  • China: As the world’s largest recipient of FDI, China has accumulated vast foreign exchange reserves, enabling substantial investments globally, including in infrastructure projects like the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
  • India: While trailing behind China, India has seen a steady increase in FDI, bolstering sectors like IT, automotive, and telecommunications, thus enhancing its economic clout.

Global Economic Integration:

  • World Trade Organisation (WTO): Both India and China have strategically aligned policies to protect their interests and enhance their influence in global trade negotiations.
  • Economic Partnerships: China’s extensive trade network and India’s strategic partnerships with other countries are gradually shifting economic power from a unipolar world dominated by the West to a more multipolar structure.

Additional Points to Consider : –

Technological Advancements:

  • China: Leading in technologies like 5G, AI, and renewable energy, China’s technological prowess significantly boosts its economic and strategic influence.
  • India: Known for its IT and software services, India is becoming a major player in digital economy and innovation.

Military and Strategic Power:

  • Both countries have significantly modernized their military capabilities, contributing to their roles as major regional and global powers.
  • China’s assertive stance in the South China Sea and India’s strategic alliances in the Indo-Pacific region exemplify their growing geopolitical influence.

Demographic Advantages:

  • China: Despite an aging population, its large workforce has historically fueled its economic boom.
  • India: With a young and growing population, India has a demographic advantage that promises future economic growth and increased labor productivity.

Economic Growth Rates:

  • Consistently high GDP growth rates in both countries have outpaced those of many developed economies, signaling their rising economic dominance.

India and China, through strategic economic reforms, significant FDI inflows, technological advancements, and proactive global economic policies, have emerged as formidable challengers to the unipolar world order. Their rising influence in global politics and economics underscores the shift towards a more multipolar world structure.

Question 13: The Peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations. Justify this statement.

Answer 13: The peace and prosperity of countries lie in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organizations. This statement can be justified through the examples of the ASEAN Regional Forum and the European Union, highlighting their roles and impacts as follows:

(i) ASEAN Vision 2020:

  • The ASEAN Vision 2020 outlines a forward-looking role in the international community.
  • It aims to encourage negotiations over conflicts in the region, preventing the escalation of territorial disputes into armed confrontations.
  • By fostering dialogue and cooperation, ASEAN promotes stability and peace among its member states.

(ii) ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF):

  • The ARF maintains coordination of security and foreign policy among ASEAN members and other participating countries.
  • This coordination helps in managing regional security issues and builds trust among nations, contributing to a peaceful environment.
  • The ARF’s focus on preventive diplomacy and conflict resolution strengthens regional peace and stability.

(iii) EU Common Foreign and Security Policy:

  • The EU’s foundation includes a common foreign and security policy, promoting peace and stability in Europe.
  • This policy enables member states to cooperate on security matters, reducing the likelihood of conflicts within the region.
  • By presenting a united front, the EU enhances its ability to address external threats and maintain regional peace.

(iv) Cooperation on Justice and Home Affairs:

The EU also emphasizes cooperation on justice and home affairs, which includes policies on migration, asylum, and border management.
This cooperation ensures a coordinated approach to internal security challenges, fostering a safe and stable environment for citizens.
Harmonizing these policies across member states strengthens the rule of law and mitigates potential conflicts.

(v) Expansion and Inclusion:

  • The European Union has expanded by including new members, particularly from the Soviet bloc, which has contributed to regional stability and economic growth.
  • This expansion fosters economic cooperation and integration, reducing historical tensions and promoting prosperity.
  • By integrating these countries into the EU framework, the region benefits from shared economic growth and stability.

(vi) Economic Integration and Prosperity:

  • Both ASEAN and the EU exemplify how regional economic organizations can drive prosperity through economic integration.
  • Economic cooperation leads to increased trade, investment, and development, benefiting all member states.
  • Shared economic interests and interdependence reduce the likelihood of conflicts and enhance mutual prosperity.

In summary, the ASEAN Regional Forum and the European Union demonstrate that regional economic organizations play a crucial role in promoting peace and prosperity. By encouraging dialogue, coordinating security policies, expanding cooperation, and integrating economies, these organizations contribute to a stable and prosperous regional environment.

Question 14: Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.

The relations between China and India have experienced various phases of cooperation and contention. Despite friendly gestures from India, such as signing the ‘Panchsheel’ agreement in 1954 and advocating for China’s membership in the United Nations, several contentious issues have arisen. These issues, along with potential resolutions, are outlined below:

Contentious Issues

Border Dispute and 1962 Military Conflict: In 1962, China and India had a military conflict over the McMahon Line, leading to disputes over territories in Arunachal Pradesh and the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.

Tibet Issue: India’s protest against China’s takeover of Tibet in 1950 has been a significant point of contention.

Post-Panchsheel Conflict: Despite the Panchsheel Agreement, the 1962 attack by China to occupy larger Indian territories created a sense of betrayal and humiliation in India.

China’s Assistance to Pakistan: China’s support for Pakistan’s nuclear program has been a major source of tension, given the historical and ongoing rivalry between India and Pakistan.

China’s Military Relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar: China’s growing military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar are perceived as threats to Indian interests in the region.

Suggested Resolutions for Greater Cooperation

Reviving Harmonious Attitudes:

Both countries should intensify diplomatic efforts to revive and maintain a harmonious attitude towards each other, focusing on dialogue and peaceful resolution of disputes.
Joint Efforts Against Common Challenges:

China and India should collaborate to address common challenges such as terrorism, nuclear proliferation, and economic disparities. Joint initiatives and cooperation in these areas can build trust and mutual respect.

Developing Mutual Understanding and Respect: Promoting cultural exchanges and people-to-people contacts can enhance mutual understanding and respect. Both countries should encourage academic, cultural, and technological collaborations.

Implementing and Expanding Agreements: China and India have signed agreements on cultural exchange and cooperation in science and technology. These agreements should be fully implemented and expanded to include more areas of mutual interest.

Confidence-Building Measures: Both countries should implement confidence-building measures, such as regular high-level dialogues, military-to-military contacts, and mechanisms to prevent and manage border incidents.

Economic Cooperation: Strengthening economic ties through trade and investment can create interdependencies that reduce the incentive for conflict. Joint ventures and partnerships in various sectors can promote economic growth and stability.

Regional and Global Platforms: China and India should leverage regional and global platforms like BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) to enhance cooperation and address shared concerns.

By addressing these contentious issues through diplomatic efforts, mutual cooperation, and respect, China and India can move towards greater cooperation and stability in their bilateral relations.

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