Political Science Class 12 chapter 3 question answers in english

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Contemporary South Asia class 12 question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Contemporary South Asia

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 3
Chapter NameContemporary South Asia ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for Political Science Class 12 chapter 3 question answers in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Contemporary South Asia pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Identify the country:

  • a. The struggle among pro-monarchy, pro-democracy groups and extremists created an atmosphere of political instability:
  • b. A landlocked country with multi-party competition:
  • c. The first country to liberalise its economy in the South Asian region:
  • d. In the conflict between the military and pro-democracy groups, the military has prevailed over democracy:
  • e. Centrally located and shares borders with most of the South Asian countries:
  • f. Earlier the island had the Sultan as the head of state. Now, it’s a republic:
  • g. Small savings and credit cooperatives in the rural areas have helped in reducing poverty:
  • h. A landlocked country with a monarchy:

Answer 1: (a) Nepal (b) Nepal (c) Sri Lanka (d) Pakistan (e) India (f) Maldives (g) Bangladesh (h) Bhutan.

Question 2: Which among the following statements about South Asia is wrong?

  • (a) All the countries in South Asia are democratic.
  • (b) Bangladesh and India have signed an agreement on river-water sharing.
  • (c) SAFTA was signed at the 12th SAARC Summit in Islamabad.
  • (d) The US and China play an influential role in South Asian politics.

Answer 2: (a) All the countries in South Asia are democratic.

Question 3: What are some of the commonalities and differences between Bangladesh and Pakistan in their democratic experiences?

Answer 3: Bangladesh has been the part of Pakistan itself. Both of these countries bear some similarities and differences as follows

Commonalities in Democratic Experiences

(i) Military Rule:

  • Both Bangladesh and Pakistan have experienced periods of military rule.
    Struggle for Democracy:
  • Both countries have undergone significant struggles to establish and maintain democratic governance.

(ii) Military Influence in Politics:

In Pakistan, military rule began with General Ayub Khan and continued with other military leaders like Yahya Khan. Although elections were held, they were often under military influence.

In Bangladesh, after independence, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman attempted to establish a presidential setup, but after his assassination, military leaders like Zia-ur-Rahman and Lt. Gen. H.M. Ershad took control, influencing the democratic process.

(iii) Attempts to Establish Democracy:

  • Pakistan held elections even under military rule to give a semblance of democracy.
  • Bangladesh drafted its constitution and attempted to establish a democratic system, though it was interrupted by military takeovers.

Differences in Democratic Experiences

(i) Social Dominance and Overthrow of Elected Governments:

In Pakistan, the military, clergy, and land-owning aristocrats played significant roles in overthrowing elected governments.

In Bangladesh, it was mainly the leaders and their party members who dominated the political scene and influenced the democratic process.

(ii) Pro-Military Group Influence:

In Pakistan, pro-military groups have gained power partly due to the ongoing conflict with India, which has bolstered military influence in politics.

In Bangladesh, pro-military groups have been powerful due to the support and encouragement of India.

Question 4: List three challenges to democracy in Nepal.

Answer 4: The three challenges to democracy in Nepal, resulting from a triangular conflict between the monarchist forces, the democrats, and the Maoists, are:

(i) Monarchist Forces: The monarchy’s resistance to democratic reforms and its attempts to retain power undermined democratic institutions and processes.

(ii) Democratic Forces: Internal divisions and lack of cohesion among democratic political parties weakened their ability to effectively govern and implement democratic reforms.

(iii) Maoist Insurgency: The Maoists’ armed struggle against the state and their demands for radical socio-political changes posed a significant threat to the stability and consolidation of democracy.

These challenges culminated in massive, countrywide, pro-democracy protests in April 2006, leading to significant political changes in Nepal.

Question 5: Name the principal players in the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. How do you assess the prospects of the resolution of this conflict?

Answer 5: The principal players in the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka were:

Sinhala Community: The majority ethnic group in Sri Lanka, predominantly Buddhist, who historically perceived Sri Lanka as their homeland and held political power after independence.

Sri Lankan Tamils: A significant minority group, primarily Hindu, who had historical roots in Sri Lanka and felt marginalized by policies favoring the Sinhala majority, leading to grievances and demands for autonomy.

Assessment of Prospects for Resolution:

  • Despite decades of conflict, Sri Lanka maintained a democratic political system and achieved economic growth and human development.
  • However, lasting peace remains elusive due to historical grievances, ethnic tensions, and unresolved issues related to power-sharing and minority rights.
  • International efforts and dialogue are essential for addressing these challenges and finding a sustainable resolution.

Question 6: Mention some of the recent agreements between India and Pakistan. Can we be sure that the two countries are well on their way to a friendly relationship?

Answer 6: Although India-Pakistan relations seem to be the story of endemic conflict and violence, but India and Pakistan have indeed undertaken several agreements and initiatives aimed at improving relations and reducing tensions:

  • Confidence Building Measures (CBMs): Both countries have agreed to CBMs to minimize the risk of conflict and improve trust between them.
  • Agreement on Kartarpur Corridor: Signed in 2019, facilitating visa-free movement of Indian pilgrims to Kartarpur Sahib Gurudwara in Pakistan.
  • Ceasefire Agreement: In February 2021, both countries agreed to observe a ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Civil Society Initiatives: Social activists and prominent personalities from both countries have engaged in people-to-people contact and initiatives to foster a friendly atmosphere.
  • Leadership Summits: Leaders from India and Pakistan have periodically met at summits to enhance mutual understanding and explore ways to resolve differences.
  • Cross-border Bus Routes: Bus routes between the two countries have been established, allowing easier travel and fostering cultural exchanges.
  • Increased Trade: Trade, especially between the two Punjabs, has grown significantly, indicating economic cooperation despite political differences.
  • Easier Visa Policies: Efforts have been made to streamline visa procedures, making it easier for citizens to visit each other’s countries.

Despite these positive steps, it’s important to note that deep-rooted issues and unresolved conflicts still exist between India and Pakistan. Issues such as territorial disputes (particularly over Kashmir), cross-border terrorism, and geopolitical rivalries continue to strain relations. Therefore, while there has been progress in certain areas, it would be premature to conclude that the two countries are well on their way to a genuinely friendly relationship. The path to lasting peace and friendship requires sustained efforts, dialogue, and resolution of core issues that divide them.

Question 7: Mention two areas each of cooperation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh.

Answer 7: Disagreement:

River Water Sharing: Differences over the sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters have been a persistent issue.

Illegal Immigration: Concerns and disagreements over illegal immigration from Bangladesh to India have strained relations at times.

Military Movement: Bangladesh’s refusal to allow Indian troops to move through its territory has been a point of contention.

Natural Gas Export: Bangladesh’s decision not to export natural gas to India has been another area of disagreement.


Economic Relations: Economic relations between India and Bangladesh have significantly improved over the last decade, fostering mutual growth.

Regional Connectivity: Bangladesh’s role in India’s ‘Look East’ policy aims to enhance regional connectivity linking Southeast Asia via Myanmar.

Disaster Management and Environment: Both countries cooperate on disaster management and environmental issues, sharing knowledge and resources.

Security Cooperation: There is cooperation in identifying common security threats and being sensitive to each other’s security needs, which enhances mutual trust and stability.

Question 8: How are the external powers influencing bilateral relations in South Asia? Take any one example to illustrate your point.

Answer 8: The external powers influence bilateral relations in South Asia because no region exists in the vacuum. It is influenced by outside powers and events no matter how much it may try to insulate itself from non-regional powers:

(i) Strategic Influence: Both China and the US play crucial roles in shaping political dynamics in South Asia due to their strategic interests and investments in the region.

(ii) Sino-Indian Relations: Improved relations between China and India have been notable over the past decade, driven by economic ties and shared developmental goals. However, China’s close partnership with Pakistan remains a contentious issue for India, impacting regional stability.

(iii) Economic Interdependence: The demands of development and globalisation have brought the two Asian giants closer and their economic ties have multiplied rapidly since 1991.

(iv) US as a Moderator: The US maintains diplomatic channels with both India and Pakistan, often acting as a mediator in their bilateral disputes, thereby influencing the regional security environment.

(v) Economic Engagement: Liberal economic policies in South Asia have attracted significant American investments, enhancing US involvement in the region’s economic development and security.

(vi) Strategic Interests: The US views South Asia as crucial due to its large economy, growing markets, and population size, contributing to American stakes in regional security and peace initiatives.

Example Illustration:

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): China’s ambitious infrastructure project in Pakistan, the CPEC, exemplifies how external powers (China in this case) can influence bilateral relations in South Asia. This project has strengthened China-Pakistan ties significantly, but it has also raised concerns in India due to its strategic implications and impact on regional balance of power.

This example highlights the interplay of economic cooperation, strategic partnerships, and regional geopolitical implications driven by external powers in South Asia.

Question 9: Write a short note on the role and the limitations of SAARC as a forum for facilitating economic cooperation among the South Asian countries.

Answer 9: Role of SAARC:

Regional Cooperation Initiative: SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) was established in 1985 to foster cooperation among South Asian countries.

Promotion of Harmony: It aims to promote mutual understanding and harmony among its seven member states.

SAFTA Initiative: SAARC initiated SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Agreement) to create a free trade area in South Asia, enhancing economic integration and collective economic security.

Focus on Economic Development: SAARC focuses on economic development within member states, aiming to reduce dependence on external powers and promote self-reliance.

Limitations of SAARC:

Political Differences: Political disputes, such as the Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan, often hinder cooperation and lead to bilateral conflicts rather than regional unity.

Perceived Dominance: Some member states fear that India, as the largest and most influential member, may seek to dominate SAARC, impacting their sovereignty and internal affairs.

Financial Constraints: SAARC member states are mostly developing or least developed countries, leading to financial constraints and insufficient funding for implementing cooperative initiatives.

Question 10: India’s neighbours often think that the Indian government tries to dominate and interfere in the domestic affairs of the smaller countries of the region. Is this a correct impression?

Answer 10: The impression that India tries to dominate and interfere in the domestic affairs of its smaller neighbors is not entirely correct. Here’s why:

Mutual Exploitation: India often perceives itself as exploited by its smaller neighbours, especially in terms of security concerns such as cross-border terrorism and illegal activities. This perception can lead to Indian actions that may appear as interference but are aimed at safeguarding its interests.

Regional Dominance vs. Geographic Reality: India’s central geographic location naturally positions it as a significant regional power. Neighbouring countries may fear Indian dominance due to its size and influence, but this perception needs to be balanced with the reality of geography. India’s borders with multiple countries necessitate a proactive approach to maintain stability.

Stability and Non-Interference: India strives to prevent political instability in neighbouring states to avoid external powers exploiting such situations. This proactive stance can sometimes be misinterpreted as interference when India engages diplomatically or militarily to maintain regional stability.

India’s approach to its neighbours is multifaceted, driven by concerns for security, stability, and mutual cooperation. While perceptions of dominance exist among some neighbours, India’s actions are primarily motivated by regional security interests and fostering stable relationships.

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