Political Science Class 12 chapter 4 question answers in english

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International organisations class 12 question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science International organisations

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 4
Chapter NameInternational organisation class 12 ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions
MediumEnglish

Are you looking for Political Science Class 12 chapter 4 question answers in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science International organisations pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power.

  • a. Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.
  • b. It’s a kind of negative power.
  • c. The Secretary-General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.
  • d. One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.

Answer 1: (a) Correct, (b) Correct, (c) Wrong, (d) Correct

Question 2: Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the way the UN functions

  • a. All security and peace related issues are dealt with in the Security Council.
  • b. Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.
  • c. Having consensus among the five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.
  • d. The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialised agencies of the UN.

Answer 2: (a) Correct, (b) Correct, (c) Correct, (d) Wrong

Question 3: Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?

  • a. Nuclear capability.
  • b. It has been a member of the UN since its inception.
  • c. It is located in Asia.
  • d. India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

Answer 3: d. India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

Question 4: The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:

  • a. The UN Committee on Disarmament
  • b. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • c. UN International Safeguard Committee
  • d. None of the above

Answer 4: b. International Atomic Energy Agency.

Question 5: WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations

  • a. General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
  • b. General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs
  • c. World Health Organisation
  • d. UN Development Programme

Answer 5: a. General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs

Question 6: Fill in the blanks.

  • a. The prime objective of the UN is ___________________________.
  • b. The highest functionary of the UN is called_________________.
  • c. The UN Security Council has _____ permanent and _____nonpermanent members.
  • d. ______________________ is the present UN Secretary-General.

Answer 6:

  • a. Thе primе objеctivе of thе UN is to maintain intеrnational pеacе and sеcurity.
  • b. Thе highеst functionary of thе UN is callеd thе Sеcrеtary-Gеnеral.
  • c. Thе UN Sеcurity Council has 5 pеrmanеnt and 10 non-pеrmanеnt mеmbеrs.
  • d. António Gutеrrеs is thе prеsеnt UN Sеcrеtary-Gеnеral.

Question 7: Match the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions:

AB
1. Economic and Social Councila. Oversees the global financial system
2. International Court of Justiceb. Preservation of international peace and security
3. International Atomic Energy Agencyc. Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries
4. Security Councild. Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology
5. UN High Commission for Refugeese. Resolves disputes between and among member countries
6. World Trade Organisationf. Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies
7. International Monetary Fundg. Debates and discusses global issues
8. General Assemblyh. Administration and coordination of UN affairs
9. World Health Organisationi. Providing good health for all
10. Secretariatj. Facilitates free trade among member countries

Answer 7:

AB
1. Economic and Social Councilc. Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries
2. International Court of Justicee. Resolves disputes between and among member countries
3. International Atomic Energy Agencyd. Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology
4. Security Councilb. Preservation of international peace and security
5. UN High Commission for Refugeesf. Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies
6. World Trade Organisationj. Facilitates free trade among member countries
7. International Monetary Funda. Oversees the global financial system
8. General Assemblyg. Debates and discusses global issues
9. World Health Organisationi. Providing good health for all
10. Secretariath. Administration and coordination of UN affairs

Question 8: What are the functions of the Security Council?

Answer 8: The functions of the Security Council of the United Nations are typically described as follows:

(i) Maintenance of International Peace and Security: The primary responsibility of the Security Council is to maintain international peace and security.

(ii) Conflict Resolution: It plays a crucial role in resolving conflicts between states through diplomacy, mediation, and negotiation.

(iii) Peacekeeping Operations: It authorizes peacekeeping operations by UN forces to resolve conflicts and uphold ceasefires.

(iv) Imposition of Sanctions: It can impose sanctions such as economic and diplomatic measures to pressure states to comply with its decisions.

(v) Mediation and Conflict Resolution: The Security Council mediates disputes between states and encourages peaceful resolution through negotiation and diplomacy.

(vi) Authorization of Military Action: It can authorize military action, including collective military measures by member states, to enforce its decisions and maintain peace.

(vii) Recommendations to General Assembly: The Council makes recommendations to the UN General Assembly on issues related to international peace and security.

(viii) Monitoring Global Security Threats: It monitors and addresses emerging global security threats, including terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

(ix) Promotion of International Law: The Security Council promotes adherence to international law, including human rights law and humanitarian law, in its efforts to maintain peace and security.

These functions illustrate the Security Council’s role as the central body within the UN responsible for addressing global security challenges and maintaining international order.

Question 9: As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council? Justify your proposal.

Answer 9: As a citizen of India, we may support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of Security Council through various reasons:

(i) Democratic Representation: India is the world’s largest democracy, representing over a billion people, which aligns with the principles of democratic representation in global governance.

(ii) Contributions to Peacekeeping: India is a leading contributor to UN peacekeeping missions, showcasing its commitment to global peace and security.

(iii) Economic Powerhouse: India’s growing economic stature makes it a significant player in international affairs, deserving a permanent seat that matches its economic influence.

(iv) Population Size: With over a billion people, India represents a substantial portion of the world’s population, necessitating its involvement in global decision-making.

(v) Strategic Importance: India’s geostrategic location and its role in regional stability in South Asia make it crucial for global security discussions.

(vi) Commitment to International Law: India upholds international law and norms, contributing positively to global governance frameworks.

(vii) Democratic Credentials: As the world’s largest democracy, India promotes democratic principles and values, aligning with the UN’s objectives.

(viii) Support from Global Community: India enjoys widespread support from various countries across regions, reflecting its credibility and acceptance on the global stage.

(ix) Long-standing UN Engagement: India has been actively engaged with the UN since its inception and has consistently supported its principles and missions.

(x) Promotion of Development Goals: India’s development initiatives and advocacy for sustainable development goals (SDGs) align with the UN’s agenda, making it a natural partner in shaping global policies.

India’s candidature for permanent membership in the UN Security Council is justified by its contributions to global peacekeeping, its economic and demographic significance, strategic importance, and commitment to international norms and governance. These factors underscore India’s readiness and suitability for a permanent seat, ensuring a more inclusive and representative Security Council.

Question 10: Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.

Answer 10: There are various difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN:

  • Complex Decision-Making: Reforms require consensus among 193 member states, each with diverse national interests and priorities, making decision-making slow and challenging.
  • Veto Power: The veto power of the five permanent members (P5) of the Security Council (SC) (USA, Russia, China, UK, France) hinders reforms as it protects their privileged position.
  • Resistance to Change: Member states may resist reforms that might dilute their influence or require them to contribute more financially or in terms of resources.
  • Financial Constraints: Implementing reforms often requires additional funding, which may face resistance from member states facing economic constraints or budgetary concerns.
  • Geopolitical Tensions: Ongoing global conflicts and geopolitical rivalries among member states can obstruct consensus-building and reform efforts.
  • Bureaucratic Inertia: The UN’s bureaucratic structure and established procedures may resist significant structural changes or new initiatives.
  • Differing Priorities: Member states prioritize issues differently, leading to disagreements on which areas of the UN’s functioning should be reformed first or most urgently.
  • Lack of Political Will: Some member states may lack the political will to engage actively in reform processes, preferring the status quo.
  • Legal and Institutional Hurdles: Reforms may require changes to the UN Charter or other legal frameworks, which can be a lengthy and complicated process.
  • Public Perception and Support: Reform efforts may face challenges in garnering public support and interest, affecting political momentum and will for change.

These points outline the various challenges and complexities involved in implementing reforms to reconstruct the United Nations.

Question 11: Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?

Answer 11: Here are some points highlighting why the UN is considered indispensable:

(i) Global Representation: The UN provides a platform where nearly all nations are represented, allowing for inclusive decision-making and global cooperation.

(ii) Conflict Resolution: It plays a crucial role in preventing conflicts and maintaining peace through peacekeeping missions and diplomatic efforts.

(iii) International Law and Norms: The UN sets international standards and norms on issues such as human rights, environment, and disarmament, promoting global adherence to these principles.

(iv) Humanitarian Assistance: It coordinates humanitarian aid during crises and disasters, providing vital relief to affected populations worldwide.

(v) Development Initiatives: Through specialized agencies like UNICEF and UNESCO, it supports sustainable development goals, addressing poverty, health, education, and economic inequalities.

(vi) Global Forums: Offers a platform for dialogue on pressing global issues such as climate change, terrorism, and global health, fostering international consensus and cooperation.

Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing related wars and miseries, despite the nations require its continuation due to above mentioned reasons to promote international peace and understanding.

Question 12: ‘Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council’. Do you agree with this statement? Give arguments for or against this position.

Answer 12: Yes, I agree with the statement that reforming the UN entails restructuring the Security Council. Here are the arguments supporting this position:

Changed Global Dynamics: The world has undergone significant geopolitical shifts since the establishment of the UN. The dissolution of the USSR and the emergence of new powerful nations highlight the need for a Security Council that reflects current global realities.

Privileged Position of Permanent Members: The current structure gives disproportionate power to the five permanent members (P5) with veto rights (US, UK, Russia, China, France). This setup, established post-World War II, does not reflect the diversity of today’s international community.

Inequitable Representation: The permanent members are exclusively from industrialized, developed countries. This does not adequately represent the developing world or smaller nations, which also play crucial roles in global peace and security.

Effectiveness of the UN: To enhance the effectiveness of the UN in addressing global conflicts and challenges, there is a need to reform the Security Council to ensure broader representation and legitimacy. This could include expanding permanent membership to include countries that contribute significantly to global peacekeeping efforts.

Adapting to Contemporary Issues: The Security Council’s reform should also consider the contemporary issues such as climate change, cybersecurity, and pandemics, which were not prominent concerns when the UN was founded.

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