Political Science Class 12 chapter 5 question answers in english

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Security in the contemporary world class 12 question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Security in the contemporary world

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 5
Chapter NameSecurity in the contemporary world class 12 ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions

Are you looking for Political Science Class 12 chapter 5 question answers in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science security in the contemporary world pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Match the terms with their meaning:

i. Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)a. Giving up certain types of weapons
ii. Arms Controlb. A process of exchanging information on defence matters between nations on a regular basis
iii. Alliancec. A coalition of nations meant to deter or defend against military attacks
iv. Disarmamentd. Regulates the acquisition or development of weapons

Answer 1:

i. Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)b. A process of exchanging information on defence matters between nations on a regular basis
ii. Arms Controld. Regulates the acquisition or development of weapons
iii. Alliancec. A coalition of nations meant to deter or defend against military attacks
iv. Disarmamenta. Giving up certain types of weapons

Question 2: Which among the following would you consider as a traditional security concern / non-traditional security concern / not a threat?

  • a. The spread of chikungunya / dengue fever
  • b. Inflow of workers from a neighbouring nation
  • c. Emergence of a group demanding nationhood for their region
  • d. Emergence of a group demanding autonomy for their region
  • e. A newspaper that is critical of the armed forces in the country

Answer 2: (a) Non-traditional (b) Non-traditional (c) Traditional (d) Not a threat
(e) Not a threat

Question 3: What is the difference between traditional and non-traditional security? Which category would the creation and sustenance of alliances belong to?

Answer 3: Here are the differences between traditional and non-traditional security:

  • Focus of Threats:

Traditional security focuses on threats posed by military aggression, territorial disputes, and conventional warfare. Examples: War, terrorism with clear state sponsorship, border disputes, nuclear proliferation, etc.

Non-traditional security addresses threats that are not military in nature, such as Climate change, pandemics, cyber attacks, terrorism by non-state actors, food and water security, energy security, refugee crises, etc.

  • Approach to Security Measures:

Traditional security emphasizes defense through military capabilities, deterrence, and alliances.

Non-traditional security requires cooperative measures, international agreements, and collective action to address global challenges effectively.

  • Scope of Concern:

Traditional security is primarily concerned with state-centric issues related to national sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Non-traditional security expands the scope to include transnational issues that affect human security, such as environmental degradation, infectious diseases, and economic instability.

  • Response Mechanisms:

Traditional security responses often involve military strategies, intelligence operations, and diplomatic negotiations.

Non-traditional security responses may involve humanitarian aid, disaster relief, capacity building, and regulatory frameworks to manage risks.

  • Nature of Threats:

Traditional security threats are typically immediate and visible, involving overt acts of aggression or conflict.

Non-traditional security threats are often complex, multifaceted, and less predictable, requiring long-term strategies and resilience-building measures.

Category of Creation and Sustenance of Alliances: The creation and sustenance of alliances belong to traditional security because they are part of strategies to manage military threats, balance power, and ensure the security of states through collective defense mechanisms.

Question 4: What are the differences in the threats that people in the Third World face and those living in the First World face?

Answer 4: The threats are different in the third world and first world peoples because their regions are changed, hence they face different security challenges.in the following manner:

  • Military conflicts and external threats:

Third World: Newly independent countries often face military conflicts with neighboring states over borders or resources.

First World: Generally secure from direct military conflicts due to stable borders and diplomatic relations.

  • Internal security challenges:

Third World: Vulnerable to internal threats such as separatist movements seeking independence or regional autonomy.

First World: Internal security issues exist but are typically related to terrorism, extremism, or organized crime rather than separatist movements.

  • Merge of external and internal threats:

Third World: External conflicts can exacerbate internal divisions or be exploited by internal factions.

First World: External threats (e.g., cyber attacks, terrorism) may have domestic implications but usually do not directly lead to internal conflict.

  • Nature of security concerns:

Third World: Security concerns are often centered around state-building, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity.

First World: Security concerns are diverse and include economic stability, cybersecurity, and geopolitical influence beyond immediate borders.

  • Resource allocation and development impact:

Third World: Greater resources are allocated to defense and security due to immediate threats, potentially hindering development efforts.

First World: Resources are diversified across defense, social programs, and infrastructure development, allowing for more balanced national development.

These differences illustrate how geopolitical and developmental contexts shape the nature and prioritization of security threats between the Third World and the First World.

Question 5: Is terrorism a traditional or non-traditional threat to security?

Answer 5: Terrorism is considered a non-traditional threat to security due to the following reasons:

(i) Targeting Civilians: Terrorism involves deliberate and indiscriminate attacks on civilians rather than military targets, aiming to instill fear and achieve political goals through violence.

(ii) Political Motivations: It is primarily driven by political motives, aiming to influence or overthrow governments, create fear among populations, or destabilize societies.

(iii) Methods of Attack: Terrorist tactics often include hijackings, bombings, and other forms of violence directed at public places such as markets, cafes, and transportation hubs, which differ significantly from traditional warfare tactics.

(iv) Global Attention: The impact of major terrorist events, such as the attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, has led to increased global awareness and concern about terrorism as a significant threat to international peace and security.

Question 6: What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened, according to the traditional security perspective?

Answer 6: According to the traditional security perspective, when a state’s security is threatened, a government has three basic choices:

(i) Surrender: If actually confronted by the prospect of war, a state may choose to surrender to avoid further escalation and mitigate damage. However, states rarely openly advertise this option as part of their official policy.

(ii) Deterrence: States aim to prevent aggression by making the costs of war too high for potential adversaries to bear. This involves maintaining strong military capabilities and alliances to deter attacks through the threat of retaliation or overwhelming response.

(iii) Defense: If deterrence fails and war breaks out, states defend themselves to protect their territory, population, and interests. The objective is to deny the aggressor its goals and, ideally, to defeat the attacking forces to secure peace on favorable terms.

Hence, state’s security policy is to prevent war which is called deterrence and with limiting or heading war called defence.

Question 7: What is ‘Balance of Power’? How could a state achieve this?

Answer 7: Definition: The ‘Balance of Power’ refers to the equilibrium maintained between larger and smaller countries through economic, technological, and military cooperation. Smaller countries, wary of potential aggression from larger or more powerful nations, seek to bolster their security by aligning with others to collectively strengthen their military, economic, and technological capabilities.

a state can achieve a ‘Balance of Power’ through:

  • Alliances: Forming alliances with other states to counterbalance potential threats from more powerful states.
  • Military Capability: Building up military strength to deter aggression and ensure the ability to defend against any potential adversary.
  • Diplomacy: Engaging in diplomatic negotiations and treaties to maintain equilibrium and avoid conflict.
  • Economic Strength: Developing a robust economy to support military capability and maintain influence in international affairs.
  • Soft Power: Utilizing cultural, ideological, and diplomatic influence to build alliances and shape global perceptions.
  • Multilateralism: Participating actively in international organizations and agreements to enhance collective security and prevent dominance by any single state.

Question 8: What are the objectives of military alliances? Give an example of a functioning military alliance with its specific objectives.

Answer 8: Military alliance also called ‘Alliance Building’ is an important component of traditional security policy. An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack.

Objectives of Military Alliances:

Formalized Treaties: Most alliances are established through formal written treaties. These treaties define the terms of cooperation, mutual defense obligations, and the identification of common threats.

Increased Power: Countries form alliances to enhance their collective power and influence relative to another country or alliance. By pooling resources and capabilities, member states aim to bolster their military strength and deter potential adversaries.

Based on National Interests: Alliances are fundamentally driven by national interests. Member states join alliances to safeguard their security, promote economic interests, or achieve geopolitical objectives.

Example: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

  • Objective: NATO’s primary objective is collective defense, as outlined in Article 5 of its founding treaty, which states that an attack on one member is considered an attack on all members.
  • Formation: Established in 1949 in response to the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
  • Functioning: NATO operates on the principle of mutual defense and collective security, where member states commit to defending each other in case of an attack.

Question 9: Rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.

Answer 9: Yes, we do agree with the statement because in some situations one country may have to disproportionately bear the brunt of a global problem i.e. environmental degradation causing a serious threat to security, for example, due to global warming, a sea level rise of 1.5-2.0 meters would flood 20% of Bangladesh, inundate most of Maldives and threaten nearly half the population of Thailand, Hence, international cooperation is vital due to global nature of these problems.

Question 10: Nuclear weapons as deterrence or defence have limited usage against contemporary security threats to states. Explain the statement.

Answer 10: Nuclear weapons have limited usage due to arms-control methods such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968, which regulates the acquisition of nuclear weapons. The NPT allows only those countries that had manufactured nuclear weapons before 1967 to keep them, while others must forgo their right to acquire them. This treaty does not abolish nuclear weapons but restricts the number of countries that can possess them, thereby limiting their overall utility in addressing contemporary security threats.

Question 11: Looking at the Indian scenario, what type of security has been given priority in India, traditional or non-traditional? What examples could you cite to substantiate the argument?

Answer 11: India has faced both traditional (military) and non-traditional threats to its security from within and outside its borders. Its security strategy has four broad components:

Prioritization of Security in India: Traditional vs. Non-Traditional

  1. Traditional Security (Military) Priority: To strengthen its military capabilities because:

Historical Conflicts: India has a history of conflicts with neighboring countries, specifically Pakistan (1947-48, 1965, 1971, and 1999) and China (1962).

Nuclear Capability: Surrounded by nuclear-armed countries, India prioritized its nuclear capabilities by conducting nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998 to safeguard national security.

Military Strengthening: Continuous enhancement of military capabilities to counter potential threats from neighboring nations.

  1. Strengthening International Norms and Institutions: To strengthen international norms and international institutions because:

Global Engagement: India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, championed Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonization, and the use of the United Nations as a forum for resolving international conflicts.

Non-Proliferation Initiatives: India has taken initiatives to support a universal and non-discriminatory non-proliferation regime concerning weapons of mass destruction.

Non-Alignment Movement: It used non-alignment to help to carve out an area of peace outside the blocs.

Environmental Commitment: (d) India signed Kyoto Protocol in 1997 to be a part of roadmap for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to check global warming.

  1. Addressing Internal Security Challenges: To meet security challenges within the country:

Internal Militancy: India faces various internal security challenges from militant groups in regions such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, and Kashmir. These groups seek to secede from India, posing significant threats to national unity.

Preserving National Unity: To counter these threats, India has adopted a democratic political system, ensuring freedom of speech and expression, and the right to vote, which helps in maintaining national unity and addressing grievances within a democratic framework.

  1. Economic Development as Security: To develop its economy:

Poverty Alleviation: India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic inequalities.

Human Development: Democratically elected governments focus on combining economic growth with human development, aiming to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, thus fostering a stable and secure society.

Question 12: Read the cartoon below and write a short note in favour or against the connection between war and terrorism depicted in this cartoon.

Answer 12: In this thought-provoking cartoon, the relationship between war and terrorism is vividly portrayed. The large, bloated figure labeled “WAR” serves as a visual metaphor for war itself. Nestled underneath it are smaller figures, each labeled “TERRORISM.” These smaller figures appear to be suckling or deriving sustenance from the larger war figure. The cartoon effectively conveys the idea that war can inadvertently nurture terrorism. Here’s a brief analysis:

In Favor of the Connection Between War and Terrorism: The cartoon aptly captures the cyclical nature of violence. War creates an environment of instability, destruction, and suffering. In such conditions, resentment and desperation can flourish among affected populations. These circumstances become fertile ground for extremist ideologies and terrorist organizations. The chaos of war provides opportunities for recruitment and the propagation of terrorist agendas. Thus, the cartoon underscores how war indirectly contributes to the rise of terrorism by creating conducive conditions.

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