Political Science Class 12 chapter 6 question answers in english

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Environment and Natural Resources class 12 question answers: Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Environment and Natural Resources

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 6
Chapter NameEnvironment and Natural Resources class 12 ncert solutions
CategoryNcert Solutions
MediumEnglish

Are you looking for Political Science Class 12 chapter 6 question answers in english? Now you can download Ncert solutions for class 12 political science Environment and Natural Resources pdf from here.

note: All these questions and answers are based on the new syllabus. So the chapter numbers may seem different to you.

Question 1: Which among the following best explains the reason for growing concerns about the environment?

  • a. The developed countries are concerned about protecting nature.
  • b. Protection of the environment is vital for indigenous people and natural habitats.
  • c. The environmental degradation caused by human activities has become pervasive and has reached a dangerous level.
  • d. None of the above.

Answer 1: c. The environmental degradation caused by human activities has become pervasive and has reached a dangerous level.

Question 2: Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the Earth Summit:

  • a. It was attended by 170 countries, thousands of NGOs and many MNCs.
  • b. The summit was held under the aegis of the UN.
  • c. For the first time, global environmental issues were firmly consolidated at the political level.
  • d. It was a summit meeting.

Answer 2: a. Correct, b. Correct, c. Correct, d. Correct

Question 3: Which among the following are TRUE about the global commons?

  • a. The Earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, ocean floor and outer space are considered as part of the global commons.
  • b. The global commons are outside sovereign jurisdiction.
  • c. The question of managing the global commons has reflected the North-South divide.
  • d. The countries of the North are more concerned about the protection of the global commons than the countries of the South.

Answer 3: a. The Earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, ocean floor and outer space are considered as part of the global commons.

Question 4: What were the outcomes of the Rio Summit?

Answer 4: Outcomes of the Rio Summit:

(i) Conventions on Environmental Issues: The Rio Summit produced significant international conventions addressing climate change, biodiversity, and forestry. These conventions aimed to tackle key environmental challenges on a global scale.

(ii) Agenda 21: A comprehensive list of development practices called Agenda 21 was recommended. This agenda serves as a blueprint for achieving sustainable development worldwide, emphasizing the integration of environmental and developmental goals.

(iii) Concept of Sustainable Development: The summit popularized the concept of sustainable development, advocating for the combination of economic growth with ecological responsibility. This concept encourages development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

(iv) Contentious Issues in Global Environmental Politics: The Rio Summit highlighted and developed various contentious issues in global environmental politics, such as the management of Commons and Global Commons. These discussions emphasized the need for cooperative international efforts to manage and protect shared environmental resources.

Question 5: What is meant by the global commons? How are they exploited and polluted?

Answer 5: The term “global commons” refers to natural resources and environments that are not owned by any single country but are shared by all nations. These include the high seas, the atmosphere, outer space, and the Antarctic. They are exploited and polluted due to:

  • Overexploitation: Global commons like oceans and forests are often overused for resources such as fish and timber beyond sustainable limits.
  • Pollution: Activities such as industrial discharge and untreated sewage contribute to pollution of air, water, and soil in global commons.
  • Climate Change: Greenhouse gas emissions from various human activities affect the atmosphere, leading to global warming and altering natural systems.
  • Lack of Governance: Weak international agreements and inadequate enforcement allow unchecked exploitation and pollution of global commons.
  • Resource Depletion: Non-renewable resources within global commons, such as minerals and fossil fuels, are extracted without sufficient regard for future availability or environmental impact.

Question 6: What is meant by ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’? How could we implement the idea?

Answer 6: “Common but differentiated responsibilities” refers to the principle that all countries share the responsibility to address global environmental issues such as climate change, but this responsibility should be differentiated based on each country’s capability and level of development.

Developed countries, which historically have contributed more to environmental degradation and have greater resources, acknowledge a greater responsibility to take action and provide support to developing countries. This principle encourages global cooperation while recognizing the varying capacities and circumstances of different nations in tackling environmental challenges.

We could implement the idea with the help of conventions and declarations:

(i) International Conventions and Treaties: Adopt agreements like the Rio Summit’s conventions on climate change, biodiversity, and forestry (e.g., Agenda 21) that outline differentiated responsibilities based on countries’ development levels.

(ii) UN Framework: Follow frameworks such as the UNFCCC, which emphasizes differentiated responsibilities among parties to protect the climate system.

(iii) Specific Targets and Commitments: Set targets like those in the Kyoto Protocol, which mandate industrialized nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to their capacity and historical contribution to global warming.

(iv) Policy Frameworks: Develop national policies that reflect differentiated responsibilities, aligning with international commitments while considering each country’s unique circumstances and capabilities.

(v) Monitoring and Reporting Mechanisms: Implement mechanisms to monitor and report progress towards meeting commitments under the differentiated responsibilities framework.

(vi) Capacity Building: Support capacity building efforts in developing countries to enhance their ability to mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts, in line with their differentiated responsibilities.

Question 7: Why have issues related to global environmental protection become the priority concern of states since the 1990s?

Answer 7: Issues related to global environmental protection became the priority concern of states since the 1990s because at the global level, the environmental issues drew the attention of various states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio-de-Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992 through Agenda 21:

  • Rio-Summit 1992 dealt with climatic change, biodiversity and forestry.
  • Agenda 21 combined economic growth with ecological responsibilities.
  • Kyoto Protocol set targets for greenhouse emissions.

The above-mentioned conferences and summits raised the environmental issues at the global level to take steps by various states to check environmental degradation in a co-operative manner.

Question 8: Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies required by states to save planet Earth. Substantiate the statement in the light of the ongoing negotiations between the North and South on environmental issues.

Answer 8: Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies to save Planet Earth by the states but the states from North and South have different notions towards environmental issues:

  • The Northern states (developed countries) were concerned with ozone depletion and global warming, the Southern states (developing countries) were anxious to address the relationship between economic development and environmental management.
  • The developed countries of the North want to discuss the environmental issues which stand equally responsible for ecological conservation.
  • The developing countries of the South feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries. If they have caused
    more degradation, they must also take more responsibility for undoing the damage now.
  • The developing counties are under the process of industrialization and they should be exempted from restrictions imposed on developed countries through various conventions like protocol etc.
  • The special needs of developing countries must be taken into considerations in the process of development, application, and interpretation of rules of International Environmental Law.

All the above mentioned provisions were accepted in Earth Summit, 1992 while adopting common but differentiated responsibilities.

Question 9: The most serious challenge before the states is pursuing economic development without causing further damage to the global environment. How could we achieve this? Explain with a few examples

Answer 9: To achieve economic development without causing further damage to the global environment, the following strategies can be considered:

(i) Sustainable Development: Focus on sustainable practices that meet current economic needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. For example, In June 1992, Earth Summit provided some conservative measures for sustainable growth without damaging environment anymore.

(ii) Environmental Regulations: Implement strict environmental regulations and policies to control industrial pollution, deforestation, and carbon emissions. For instance, Kyoto protocol cut greenhouse emissions from industrialised countries to protect environment and to develop industries also.

(iii) Green Technologies: Invest in and promote technologies that are environmentally friendly. For example, promoting the use of electric vehicles reduces air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles.

(iv) International Cooperation: Foster international cooperation to address global environmental challenges. For example,The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 covered Global Commons for mutual economic development.

(v) Public Awareness and Education: Educate the public about the importance of environmental conservation and sustainable development. For instance, campaigns promoting recycling and reducing plastic use can lead to significant environmental benefits without hindering economic growth.

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