Security in the contemporary world class 12 notes, Class 12 political science chapter 7 notes

Security in Contemporary World Class 12 Notes: Class 12 political science chapter 7 notes

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 7
Chapter NameSecurity in Contemporary World
CategoryPolitical Science

Security in the contemporary world class 12 notes, Class 12 political science chapter 7 notes here we will be learn about Security: Meaning and Type; Terrorism etc.

What is Security ?

🔹 Security of a country is a vital issue for the all – round development and well – being of a country and its people. Security implies freedom from threats. But every type of threaten core values is a threat to security , Security along with peace is very important for all types of development of a nation.

Meaning of security : –

🔹 Security means in simple words freedom from Threats / dangers. Human life of a country is full of threats and a foolproof guarantee against them is called security.

Types of Security : –

🔹 Mainly there are two types of Security : – 

  • 1 ) Traditional Notion of Security
  • 2 ) Non – traditional Notion of Security

1 ) Traditional Notion of Security : –

🔹 Traditional Security is two types : – 

  • external security and 
  • internal Security

Traditional Notions : External : –

🔹 In the traditional notion of security , the most substantial danger to a country is from military threats. The root cause of this danger is the other country which by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty , independence and territorial integrity. Further , it also endangers the lives of ordinary citizens.

Traditional Notions : Internal : –

🔹 It means that to the security from within the country, including conflicts, civil wars, dissatisfaction with the government. This security depends on inner peace and law and order. In this there is a danger from the people of his own country.

Option with the government for In responding to the threat of war : –

  • To surrender , without facing any war.
  • To prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level.
  • To defend itself when war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives and to turn back to defeat the attacking forces altogether.

Components of Traditional Security : –

🔹 There are four components of traditional security which are discussed below : –

🔸 Deterrence : – Deterrence The security policy which is concerned with preventing a war is called deterrence.

🔸 Defence : – Defence The security policy which is concerned with limiting or ending war is called defence.

🔸 Balance of Power : – Balance of power is the maintenance of such just equilibrium between the members of the family of nations as should prevent any of them from becoming strong enough to impose its will upon the others. It is the system in which power is distributed among several nations with approximate equality.

🔸 Alliance Building : – Alliance Building An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to defend against military attacks . Alliances are formed by countries to increase their power as compared to another country.

2 ) Non – traditional notions security : –

🔹 Non – traditional notions security go beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence. Non – traditional security focuses on human and global security.

Components of Non Traditional Notion : –

🔸 Human Security : – It refers to the protection of people more than the protection of states . Here , state does not mean secure people. The proponents of human security held their primary goal as the protection of individuals from violent threats , which constitute the narrow concept of human security.

🔸 Global Security : – The idea of global security emerged in the 1990 is response to nature threats such as global warming , terrorism & health issue. No country can resolve these problem alone. Example : – global poverty , migration , health epidemics ( bird flu ) , HIV aids , ( SARS ) severe acute respiratory syndrome and Covid – 19 etc.

Traditional Security and Cooperation : –

🔹 In traditional security , there is a recognition that cooperation in limiting violence is possible. These limits relates both to the ends and the means of war. Countries have also accepted that they should only go to war for the right reasons only such as , self defence or to protect other people from genocide.

🔹 War must also be limited in terms of the means that are used. Force must in any case be used only after al the alternatives have failed. Traditional views of security should include all other forms of cooperation and the most important of these are disarmament , arms control and confidence building .

Disarmament : –

🔹 The term ” disarmament ” is used for reduction or elimination of arms. In practice it has come to mean everything from total elimination of all weapons to the limitations or control of some kind of deadly weapons.

🔸 For example : – the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention ( BWC ) and the 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention ( CWC ) banned the production and possession of these weapons. More than 155 states acceded to the BWC and 181 states acceded to the CWC.

🔹 Both conventions included all the great powers. But the superpowers — the US and Soviet Union — did not want to give up the third type of weapons of mass destruction, namely, nuclear weapons, so they pursued arms control.

Arms Control : –

🔹 Arms control regulates the acquisition of development of weapons. The Anti – Ballistic Missile ( ABM ) Treaty in 1972 tried to stop the US and Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles as a defence shield to launch a nuclear attack. 

🔹 The US and Soviet Union signed a number of other arms control treaty including :-

  • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty II ( SALT II )
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty ( START )
  • Nuclear Non – Proliferation Treaty ( NPT ) of 1968.

Nuclear Non proliferation Treaty ( NPT ) : – 

🔹 The NPT was signed in 1968 in which it was mentioned that those countries that had tested and manufactured nuclear weapons before 1967 were allowed to keep their weapons and those that has not done so were to give up the right to acquire them. So the NPT did not abolish nuclear weapons, rather it limited the number of countries that could have them.

Confidence building : –

🔹 Confidence building is a process in which countries share ideas and information with their rivals. They tell each other about their military intentions and, up to a point, their military plans. This is a way of demonstrating that they are not planning a surprise attack. They also tell each other about the kind of forces they possess, and they may share information on where those forces are deployed.

🔹 In short, confidence building is a process designed to ensure that rivals do not go to war through misunderstanding or misperception.

New Sources of Threats : –

🔹 Some of the new sources of threats evident at the global level today are discussed below : –

  • Terrorism
  • Threats to Human Rights
  • Global Poverty
  • Migration
  • Health Epidemics

Terrorism : –

🔹 Terrorism refers to systematic use of brutal violence. that creates an atmosphere of fear in the society. It is used for many purposes especially the politico – religious purposes in a prominent manner. It involves hijacking planes or planting bombs in trains , cafes , markets and other crowded places. 

🔹 There could be three broad meanings of Terrorism : –

( i ) A systematic use of terror , often violent , especially as a means of coercion. 

( ii ) These are violent acts which are intended to create fear ( terror ) ; are perpetrated for a religious , political or ideological goal and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non- combatants or civilians. 

( iii ) Terrorism is defined as acts of unlawful violence and war.

🔹 Since , the 9/11 terrorist attack on America , other governments and public have paid more attention to terrorism.

🔹 Most of terror attacks have occurred in the Middle East , Europe , Latin America and South Asia in the past.

Threats to Human Rights : –

🔹 Human rights refer to basic rights of human beings. They are classified into three types : –

  • ( i ) Political rights such as freedom of speech and assembly.
  • ( ii ) Economic and social rights.
  • ( iii ) The right of colonised people of ethnic and indigenous minorities.

🔹 There is no agreement on which set of rights should be considered as universal human rights or the rules of action ( by the international community ) on the violation of rights.

Global Poverty : –

🔹 Global poverty signifies a condition available in the states ranging from low incomes to less economic growth. It is another source of insecurity for the people. Currently , half of the world’s population occurs in only six countries that are India , China , Pakistan , Nigeria , Bangladesh and Indonesia.

How does per capita income and population growth affect economic inequality in the world ?

🔹 High per capita income and less growth of population makes the rich country more wealthy. Whereas Low per capita income and rapid growth of population together makes countries poorer.

Migration : –

🔹 Poverty in South has prompted large scale migration to the North in search of a better life , particularly greater economic possibilities. International political tensions have resulted as a result of this.

Internally displaced people : –

🔹 Individuals who leave their homes and live within the borders of their own country are called internally displaced people like Kashmiri Pandits from the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Health Epidemics : –

🔹 Epidemics refer to HIV – AIDS , bird flu and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS like COVID – 19) have rapidly spread across countries through migration , business , tourism and military operations.

🔹 It was estimated that worldwide , two – third of HIV – AIDS infected people are in Africa and the rest are in South – Asia. 

🔹 The new drug therapies helped to lower the death rate from HIV – AIDS , but these treatments were too expensive for the poor regions like Africa. There is a need for international cooperation to handle health epidemics issues in a better way.

Cooperative Security : –

🔹 Cooperative security is required to alleviate poverty , manage migration , refugee movements and control epidemics. Cooperation may be bilateral , regional , continental or global depending on the nature of threat and willingness and ability of countries to respond either nationally or internationally. UNO , World Bank , Red cross society , Amnesty International organization.

🔹 But cooperative security may also involve the use of the force as a last resort and the international community may have to sanction the use of force to deal with dictatorship.

India’s Security Strategy : –

🔹 India has faced both traditional and non – traditional threats to its security. India’s security strategy has four broad components : –

  • Strong Defence forces
  • Support to International Organization
  • Internal peace
  • Economic Development

🔸 Strong Defence forces : –

🔹 The first component was the strengthening the military capabilities of India’s security strategy because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours.

🔹 Pakistan in 1947-48 , 1965 , 1971 and 1999 and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear – armed countries in the South Asian region. 

🔹 India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.

🔸 Support to International Organization : –

🔹 The second component of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests. 

🔹 India took various initiatives to bring about a universal and non – discriminatory non – proliferation regime which will provide all the countries same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction e.g. nuclear , biological or chemical.

🔹 It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order ( NIEO ). It used non – alignment to help carve out an area of place outside the bloc politics.

🔹 India joined 160 countries that have signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol which provides a strategy for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to check global warming.

🔸 Internal peace : –

🔹 The third important component of India’s security strategy is geared towards meeting security challenges within the country.

🔹 India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system , which allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.

🔸 Economic Development : –

🔹 The fourth component is to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist. 

🔹 This attempt is not successful , people in our country are still very poor and unequality is there. Yet democratic politics allows spaces for articulating the voice of the poor and deprived citizens.

Related Chapters

The Cold War Era ( Deleted )
The End of Bipolarity
US Hegemony in World Politics ( Deleted )
Contemporary Centres of Power
Contemporary South Asia
International Organisations
Security in the Contemporary World
Environment and Natural Resources

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