The end of bipolarity class 12 notes, Class 12 political science chapter 2 notes

The End of Bipolarity class 12 Notes: Class 12 political science chapter 2 notes

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 2
Chapter NameThe End of Bipolarity
CategoryPolitical Science

The end of bipolarity class 12 notes, Class 12 political science chapter 2 notes here we will be learn about Disintegration of the Soviet Union , Unipolar world , Middle East crisis – Afghanistan , Gulf War , Democratic Politics and Democratization – CIS and 21st Century ( Arab Spring ) etc.

The Berlin Wall : –

🔹 The Berlin Wall symbolised the division between the capitalist and the communist world. Built in 1961 to separate East Berlin from West Berlin , this more than 150 kilometre long wall stood for 28 years and was finally broken by the people on 9 November 1989.

Vladimir Lenin : –

🔹 Vladimir Lenin was a young theorist . Karl Marx’s theory of communism ( against capitalism ) inspired him. He founded Bolshevik communist party of Russia . In 1917 , he became founder head of the Soviet Union by revolutionising against capitalism. He was an outstanding theoretician and practitioner of Marxism and succeeded in providing , it a behavioural existence. He was the inspiration for many communists all over the world. 

Joseph Stalin : – 

🔹 Joseph Stalin is known to be the successor of Lenin. The credit of leading the Soviet Union during its consolidation goes to him. He introduced rapid industrialisation and forcible collectivisation of agriculture during his period ( 1924-53 ). Stalin was held responsible for the authoritarian functioning and elimination of rivals within the party. That’s why he is considered as a Great Terror of the 1930s.

Soviet Union : –

🔹 The Birth of Soviet Union : The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ( USSR ) came into being after the socialist revolution in Russia in 1917

🔹 There were a total of 15 republics in the Soviet Union , that’s how the Soviet Union was formed by joining 15 different countries.

  1. Russia, 
  2. Ukraine, 
  3. Georgia, 
  4. Belorussia, 
  5. Uzbekistan, 
  6. Armenia, 
  7. Azerbaijan, 
  8. Kazakhstan, 
  9. Kyrgyzstan, 
  10. Moldova, 
  11. Turkmenistan, 
  12. Tajikistan, 
  13. Latvia, 
  14. Lithuania 
  15. and Estonia. 

Characteristics of the former Soviet Union : –

🔹 It was based on socialism and opposed capitalism. It established the principle of equality in society by abolishing private property.

🔹 It gave precedence to state and party institutions. The Soviet political system was centered around the communist party with no other political party or opposition allowed. 

🔹 The economy was employed and controlled by the state and there was no unemployment.

🔹 The state owned and controlled the land and productive property. 

🔹 The Soviet Union ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens.

🔹 The government used to provide basic necessities to all citizens at concessional rates.

Development of the Soviet Economy : –

  • The Soviet economy developed after the Second World War because :-

🔹 It had a vast communication network , adequate energy resources including oil , iron and steel and transport system which connected remote areas to the cities. 

🔹 Its domestic consumer industry was developing and was producing everything from pins to cars. However , the quality of goods produced was not as high as in the Western capitalist countries.

🔹 The state ensured a minimum standard of living for all people , and the government provided health , education , child care and other welfare schemes at subsidised rates.

🔹 The state owned all important factors of production such as land , capital and other productive assets.

🔹 Unemployment was negligible.

‘ Second World ‘ or ‘ Socialist bloc ‘ : –

🔹 After the Second World War , the nations of Eastern Europe came under the control of USSR. Soviet army had liberated them from facist forces. The political and economic system of all these countries were moulded as per USSR’s political and socialist ideals . This group of countries was termed as ‘ Second World ‘ or ‘ Socialist bloc ‘.

What was the Soviet system ?

🔹 The Soviet system is the system by which the Soviet Union developed itself. The Soviet system was based on the socialist system. This system was based on the ideals of egalitarian society and socialism. It wanted to organize society on the principle of equality by opposing the institution of private property. 

🔹 The makers of the Soviet system gave utmost importance to the institution of the party, so the communist party was the axis of the Soviet political system. In which there was no place for any other party or opposition. The economy was planned and controlled by the state.

Features of Soviet system : –

🔹 Soviet Union had complex communication network . It had vast energy resources including oil , iron and steel. 

🔹 It had complex machinery production system and transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.

🔹 It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars , though their quality did not match that of the western capitalist countries.

🔹 The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens and the government subsidised basic necessities including health , education , childcare and other welfare schemes.

Drawbacks of Soviet system : –

🔹 The over – centralized and bureaucratic system made people’s lives difficult.

🔹 The absence of democracy and lack of freedom of thought and expression had ended the tendency of people to take initiative. 

🔹 Almost all the institutions of the Soviet Union needed to be reformed , but the rigid control of a single party made all institutions unresponsive to the people.

🔹 The communist party also did not grant freedom to the people of other 15 republics to manage and persuade their matters , including cultural matters.

Causes of collapse of the Soviet system : –

  • The Soviet system became very bureaucratic and authoritarian making life very difficult for its citizens.
  • Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech among citizens.
  • The one party system and the tight grip of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union over all institutions.
  • The Communist Party was not accountable to the people and functioned in a dictatorial manner.
  • This Party refused to recognise the aspirations of the people in its different republics to manage their own affairs including their cultural affairs.
  • Russians dominated over all the other ethnic groups . People from other regions felt neglected and often suppressed.
  • Rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty rose within various Republics.
  • The Arms race with the USA depleted its resources and effected its economic growth.
  • The Soviet Union lagged behind the West in technology and infrastructure.
  • There was growing economic distress among its citizens and regional aspirations grew stronger in the Republics.
  • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened the system and wages continued to grow , productivity and technology saw lowered growth. There were shortages in all consumer goods and food imports increased every year.
  • The Soviet economy was faltering in the late 70s and became stagnant.

Why were people dissatisfied with Soviet System ?

🔹 Soviet system was based on the ideology socialist but after the Second World War , there was an internal dissatisfaction which erupted like fire.

🔹 The economic , social and political lives of Soviet citizens were under the state control , due to which bureaucracy increased , making life very difficult for its citizens.

🔹 The Soviet political system centered around communist party. Thus , no proper system of democracy and freedom of speech was there.

🔹 The party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens , which increased dissatisfaction among the people.

🔹 The bureaucrats and authoritarians were not answerable to common people. 

🔹 There was a discrimination among the citizens of Russian republics and citizens of other republics due to which the citizens of other republics felt neglected and often suppressed.

Features that made the Soviet economy better from that of a capitalist country like the USA : –

🔹 Soviet economy had complex communication network with energy resources and an efficient transport sector connecting its remotest areas. Soviet Union industry produced every domestic product from Pins to cars , although with the quality better than the Western Technology , Soviet Union insured a minimum standard of living for its citizens. There was an absence of unemployment in Soviet Union , land and productive assets were under state control.

Difference between the capitalist and the socialist models : –

  • Difference between the capitalist and the socialist models of development are :

🔶 Capitalist Model : –

🔹 In this model, means of production can be owned by the individual which means state ownership is absent here.

🔹 The main motive of this model is to extract maximum profit from the market.

🔹 It doesn’t recognise the principle of equality and widens the gap between rich and poor.

🔹 Production is carried out on demand and supply basis.

🔶 Socialist Model : –

🔹 The socialist model favours state ownership of means of production and individual ownership is prohibited.

🔹 The main motive of this model is the social welfare of the masses.

🔹 It upholds and recognises the principle of equality and seeks to create an egalitarian society.

🔹 The socialist model is based on mass production with no profit motive.

Mikhail Gorbachev : –

🔹 Mikhail Gorbachev was born in the year 1931. He was the last President of the Soviet Union ( 1985 to 1991 ). Mikhail Gorbachev became the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985 and sought to reform the ailing system , introduced economic and political reforms of perestroika and glasnost and initiated changes.

Achievements of Mikhail Gorbachev : –

🔹 He introduced economic and political reform policies of ‘ perestroika ‘ ( reconstructing ) and ‘ glasnost ‘ ( openness ) to remove the dissatisfaction of public.

🔹 He suggested the philosophy of ‘ peaceful co – existence while trying to improve relations with the West during the Cold War.

🔹 He signed various treaties to stop arms race with the US.

🔹 He established peace by withdrawing Soviet troops from Afghanistan and Eastern Europe. 

🔹 He helped in unification of Germany and ended the Cold War.

Factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the USSR : –

🔹 Mikhail Gorbachev was the secretary general of the Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1985 he was forced to initiate reforms in the USSR because :-

🔹 The Soviet system had become very bureaucratic and authoritarian making life difficult for the common citizens.

🔹 There was a lack of democracy and freedom of speech , resulting in dissatisfaction among the citizens.

🔹 The citizens in the 15 Republics of the USSR were dissatisfied with the Russian domination in their cultural affairs. The rise of nationalism and desire for Sovereignty in Russia and the Republics.

🔹 Low productivity and technology had resulted in shortages of consumer goods and the Soviet economy had become stagnant as the economic growth rate was low.

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