12 Class Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity Notes
|Chapter Name||The End of Bipolarity|
Class 12th Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity Notes here we will be learn about Disintegration of the Soviet Union , Unipolar world , Middle East crisis – Afghanistan , Gulf War , Democratic Politics and Democratization – CIS and 21st Century ( Arab Spring ) etc.
The Berlin Wall : –
🔹 The Berlin Wall symbolised the division between the capitalist and the communist world. Built in 1961 to separate East Berlin from West Berlin , this more than 150 kilometre long wall stood for 28 years and was finally broken by the people on 9 November 1989.
Vladimir Lenin : –
🔹 Vladimir Lenin was a young theorist . Karl Marx’s theory of communism ( against capitalism ) inspired him. He founded Bolshevik communist party of Russia . In 1917 , he became founder head of the Soviet Union by revolutionising against capitalism. He was an outstanding theoretician and practitioner of Marxism and succeeded in providing , it a behavioural existence. He was the inspiration for many communists all over the world.
Joseph Stalin : –
🔹 Joseph Stalin is known to be the successor of Lenin. The credit of leading the Soviet Union during its consolidation goes to him. He introduced rapid industrialisation and forcible collectivisation of agriculture during his period ( 1924-53 ). Stalin was held responsible for the authoritarian functioning and elimination of rivals within the party. That’s why he is considered as a Great Terror of the 1930s.
Soviet Union : –
🔹 The Birth of Soviet Union : The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ( USSR ) came into being after the socialist revolution in Russia in 1917.
🔹 There were a total of 15 republics in the Soviet Union , that’s how the Soviet Union was formed by joining 15 different countries.
- and Estonia.
Characteristics of the former Soviet Union : –
🔹 It was based on socialism and opposed capitalism. It established the principle of equality in society by abolishing private property.
🔹 It gave precedence to state and party institutions. The Soviet political system was centered around the communist party with no other political party or opposition allowed.
🔹 The economy was employed and controlled by the state and there was no unemployment.
🔹 The state owned and controlled the land and productive property.
🔹 The Soviet Union ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens.
🔹 The government used to provide basic necessities to all citizens at concessional rates.
Development of the Soviet Economy : –
- The Soviet economy developed after the Second World War because :-
🔹 It had a vast communication network , adequate energy resources including oil , iron and steel and transport system which connected remote areas to the cities.
🔹 Its domestic consumer industry was developing and was producing everything from pins to cars. However , the quality of goods produced was not as high as in the Western capitalist countries.
🔹 The state ensured a minimum standard of living for all people , and the government provided health , education , child care and other welfare schemes at subsidised rates.
🔹 The state owned all important factors of production such as land , capital and other productive assets.
🔹 Unemployment was negligible.
‘ Second World ‘ or ‘ Socialist bloc ‘ : –
🔹 After the Second World War , the nations of Eastern Europe came under the control of USSR. Soviet army had liberated them from facist forces. The political and economic system of all these countries were moulded as per USSR’s political and socialist ideals . This group of countries was termed as ‘ Second World ‘ or ‘ Socialist bloc ‘.
What was the Soviet system ?
🔹 The Soviet system is the system by which the Soviet Union developed itself. The Soviet system was based on the socialist system. This system was based on the ideals of egalitarian society and socialism. It wanted to organize society on the principle of equality by opposing the institution of private property.
🔹 The makers of the Soviet system gave utmost importance to the institution of the party, so the communist party was the axis of the Soviet political system. In which there was no place for any other party or opposition. The economy was planned and controlled by the state.
Features of Soviet system : –
🔹 Soviet Union had complex communication network . It had vast energy resources including oil , iron and steel.
🔹 It had complex machinery production system and transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.
🔹 It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars , though their quality did not match that of the western capitalist countries.
🔹 The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens and the government subsidised basic necessities including health , education , childcare and other welfare schemes.
Drawbacks of Soviet system : –
🔹 The over – centralized and bureaucratic system made people’s lives difficult.
🔹 The absence of democracy and lack of freedom of thought and expression had ended the tendency of people to take initiative.
🔹 Almost all the institutions of the Soviet Union needed to be reformed , but the rigid control of a single party made all institutions unresponsive to the people.
🔹 The communist party also did not grant freedom to the people of other 15 republics to manage and persuade their matters , including cultural matters.
Causes of collapse of the Soviet system : –
- The Soviet system became very bureaucratic and authoritarian making life very difficult for its citizens.
- Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech among citizens.
- The one party system and the tight grip of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union over all institutions.
- The Communist Party was not accountable to the people and functioned in a dictatorial manner.
- This Party refused to recognise the aspirations of the people in its different republics to manage their own affairs including their cultural affairs.
- Russians dominated over all the other ethnic groups . People from other regions felt neglected and often suppressed.
- Rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty rose within various Republics.
- The Arms race with the USA depleted its resources and effected its economic growth.
- The Soviet Union lagged behind the West in technology and infrastructure.
- There was growing economic distress among its citizens and regional aspirations grew stronger in the Republics.
- The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened the system and wages continued to grow , productivity and technology saw lowered growth. There were shortages in all consumer goods and food imports increased every year.
- The Soviet economy was faltering in the late 70s and became stagnant.
Why were people dissatisfied with Soviet System ?
🔹 Soviet system was based on the ideology socialist but after the Second World War , there was an internal dissatisfaction which erupted like fire.
🔹 The economic , social and political lives of Soviet citizens were under the state control , due to which bureaucracy increased , making life very difficult for its citizens.
🔹 The Soviet political system centered around communist party. Thus , no proper system of democracy and freedom of speech was there.
🔹 The party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens , which increased dissatisfaction among the people.
🔹 The bureaucrats and authoritarians were not answerable to common people.
🔹 There was a discrimination among the citizens of Russian republics and citizens of other republics due to which the citizens of other republics felt neglected and often suppressed.
Features that made the Soviet economy better from that of a capitalist country like the USA : –
🔹 Soviet economy had complex communication network with energy resources and an efficient transport sector connecting its remotest areas. Soviet Union industry produced every domestic product from Pins to cars , although with the quality better than the Western Technology , Soviet Union insured a minimum standard of living for its citizens. There was an absence of unemployment in Soviet Union , land and productive assets were under state control.
Mikhail Gorbachev : –
🔹 Mikhail Gorbachev was born in the year 1931. He was the last President of the Soviet Union ( 1985 to 1991 ). Mikhail Gorbachev became the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985 and sought to reform the ailing system , introduced economic and political reforms of perestroika and glasnost and initiated changes.
Achievements of Mikhail Gorbachev : –
- He introduced economic and political reform policies of ‘ perestroika ‘ ( reconstructing ) and ‘ glasnost ‘ ( openness ) to remove the dissatisfaction of public.
- He suggested the philosophy of ‘ peaceful co – existence while trying to improve relations with the West during the Cold War.
- He signed various treaties to stop arms race with the US.
- He established peace by withdrawing Soviet troops from Afghanistan and Eastern Europe.
- He helped in unification of Germany and ended the Cold War.
Factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the USSR : –
🔹 Mikhail Gorbachev was the secretary general of the Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1985 he was forced to initiate reforms in the USSR because :-
🔹 The Soviet system had become very bureaucratic and authoritarian making life difficult for the common citizens.
🔹 There was a lack of democracy and freedom of speech , resulting in dissatisfaction among the citizens.
🔹 The citizens in the 15 Republics of the USSR were dissatisfied with the Russian domination in their cultural affairs. The rise of nationalism and desire for Sovereignty in Russia and the Republics.
🔹 Low productivity and technology had resulted in shortages of consumer goods and the Soviet economy had become stagnant as the economic growth rate was low.
Effects of Mikhail Gorbachev’s Reforms on the USSR : –
- Gorbachev promised to reform the economy – catch up with the West -yet Soviet union collapsed.
- The communist party members felt that their power and privileges were eroding.
- His reforms gave rise to nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics ( including Russia and the Baltic Republics – Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania ).
- Even the ordinary people felt alienated from the central Asians and from each other and felt they were paying too high a price to stay within the Soviet Union.
Declaration of the end of the Soviet Union : –
🔹 In 1991, the countries of Eastern Europe under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin and Russia, Ukraine and Belarus announced the end of the Soviet Union.
Disintegration of the Soviet Union : –
🔹 The ongoing conflict in the republics of the Soviet Union played an important role in the disintegration of the country . The central authority of the Soviet Union was weakened by the struggle of the republics . One by one the republics of the Soviet Union became independent. The Soviet Union disintegrated on 25 December 1991.
🔹 Out of the 15 republics that included the Soviet Union as a ‘ multinational state ‘ , 12 of them together formed the ‘ Commonwealth of Independent States ‘ ( CIS ) . The three Baltic republics ( Latvia , Estonia and Lithuania ) did not join it.
Timeline of Disintegration of the Soviet Union : –
- 1985 March :- Mikhail Gorbachev elected as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ; appoints Boris Yeltsin as the head of the communist party in Moscow ; initiates a series of reforms in the Soviet Union.
- 1988 :- Independence movement began in Lithuania , later spread to Estonia and Latvia.
- 1989 October :- Soviet Union declares that the Warsaw Pact members are free to decide their own futures ; Berlin Wall falls in November.
- 1900 February :- Gobarchev strips the Soviet Communist Party of its 72 – year – long monopoly on power by calling on the Soviet Parliament ( Duma ) to permit multi – party politics.
- 1990 March :- Lithuania becomes the first of the 15 Soviet republics to declare its independence.
- 1990 June :- Russian Parliament declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
- 1991 August :- The Communist Party hardliners stage on abortive coup against Gorbachev.
- 1991 September :- Three Baltic republics of Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania become UN members ( later join NATO in March 2004 ).
- 1991 December :- Russia , Belarus and Ukraine decide to annul the 1992 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and establish the commonwealth of Independent States ( CIS ) ; Armenia , Azerbaijan , Moldova , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan , Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan join the CIS ( Georgia joins later in 1993 ) ; Russia takes over the USSR seat in the United Nations .
- 1991 December 25 :- Gorbachev resigns as the President of the Soviet Union ; the end of the Soviet Union ‘.
Reasons for the disintegration of Soviet Union in 1991 : –
- Socialist system.
- To involve in arms race.
- Internal weaknesses of political – economic institutions.
- Backwardness of Soviet Union in comparison to Western countries.
- Reform policies of Gorbachev.
- Desperation of freedom from socialist system.
- Military interference of USSR in Afghanistan.
- Lack of democracy and freedom of speech.
- one party system which was not accountable to the people.
- dominance of Russia and neglect of the interest of other Republics.
- high expenditure on Defence.
- low expenditure on infrastructure and Technology.
The main reasons of disintegration of the Soviet Union : –
🔶 Soviet System Political Limits :-
🔹 The Soviet system is very bureaucratic , concentrated and autocratic , which made the lives of its citizens very difficult.
🔹 Lack of democracy and lack of freedom of expression suppressed the voice of people who expressed their dissatisfaction through jokes and cartoons.
🔹 Most institutions of the Soviet Union needed improvement. The Communist Party , representing a party system of the Soviet Union , had tight control over all institutions and was irresponsible.
🔶 Economic limits : –
🔹 In the arms race , the Soviet Union managed to match the US from time to time but at great cost. The Soviet Union lagged behind the west in technology , infrastructure ( e.g. transport , power ) and most importantly in fulfilling the political or economic aspirations of the citizens .
🔹 The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened the system even further. Through wages continued to grow , productivity and technology fell considerably behind that of the west. This led to shortages in all consumer goods. Food imports increased every year . The Soviet economy was faltering in the late 1970s and became stagnant .
🔹 The Soviet economy used most of its resources for nuclear and military weapons and Eastern Europe for many of its hanger countries for many development . This created a huge economic burden which the Soviet system could not bear.
Result of the disintegration of the USSR : –
- The end of the cold war and of ideological confrontations.
- Rise of a unipolar world with the hegemony of the USA.
- End of arms race in the world and the possibility of a new peaceful world order.
- The end of the Warsaw Pact . Change in the balance of power of the world.
- Power relations in world politics changed : The USA became the sole superpower . ( unipolar world )
- Capitalist economy became the dominant economic system internationally. Institutions like the World Bank and International Monetary Fund became powerful advisors to all these countries.
- Emergence of 15 sovereign countries from the erstwhile Soviet Union.
- Russia inherited the USSR status as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
Consequences of the disintegration of Soviet Union in world politics : –
- It led to the end of the cold war and ideological confrontation in the world.
- The disintegration left open the world space to be dominated by the sole superpower.
- The world is now dominated by the USA.
- Emergence of a unipolar world.
- The power relations in world politics have changed and this has led to the dominance of capitalist system , free market economy , globalisation.
- The end of the Soviet bloc paved the way for the emergence of many new sovereign countries each with their own identity interest and economic and political relations.
- new geo- political alliances.
- Nuclear disarniament and new security arrangements have been initiated.
- The power struggle at the United Nations and its Security Council has been decreased to a certain extent.
- Collapse of the Warsaw Pact and many of its members joining NATO.
- Power shifted from Soviet Centre which was Russia dominated to its 15 Republics .
- Rise of CIS.
The United States of America benefited from the dissolution of the Soviet Union : –
- The Cold War ended and America became the only supreme power.
- The capitalist economy became an internationally dominated economic system .
The cost of arms race : –
🔹 The Soviet Union gave a tough fight to the US in the arms race , but in terms of technology and infrastructure , it lagged behind the western countries. In terms of productivity and quality , it lagged far behind the countries of the West.
Shock Therapy : –
🔹 The disintegration of the Soviet Union resulted in the fall of communism, followed by a painful transition in the former communist regimes, that is, Russia, East European countries and Central Asia from an authoritarian socialist system to a liberal democratic capitalist system. This model of transformation influenced by international financial institutions like the World Bank and the IMF came to be regarded as ‘Shock Therapy’.
Consequences of Shock Therapy : –
- Collective farms were replaced by private farming and capitalism in agriculture.
- Privatisation of state controlled institutions / assets and corporate ownership patterns introduced.
- Industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies which were brought by the bureaucrats.
- Due to the withdrawal of the old social welfare system and government subsidies pushed large sections of people into poverty.
- Rise of the Mafia which started controlling economic activities and privatisation led to new disparities. Russia was divided between the rich and poor regions which increased economic inequality.
- The constitutions were drafted in a hurry ; most of the sovereign new nations had a strong executive president with widest possible powers that rendered the elected Parliament relatively weak.
Areas of tensions and conflicts in the former Soviet republics : –
- In Russia , two republics , Chechnya and Dagestan have had violent secessiongt movements.
- In Central Asia Kazakhstan witnessed a civil war that went on for 10 years till 2001.
- Azerbaijan’s province of Nagorno – Karabakh wants to secede and join Armenia . Armenia Azerbaijan armed conflict in July 2020.
- In eastern Europe Czechoslovakia peacefully divided into two countries The Baltic region : In 1990 Lithuania declared itself independent from the Soviet Union ; in 2004 Estonia Latvia and Lithuania became members of NATO.
India’s present relationship with the former republics of Soviet Union : –
🔹 India has cordial diplomatic relations with Russia and the former Republics of the Soviet Union ; the foreign policy is based upon mutual trust interest and peaceful coexistence which includes collective security. greater regionalism and democratic notion of decision making in international bodies like the United Nations Organisation.
🔹 India has benefited from CIS and on issues like Kashmir , energy supplies , sharing information on international terrorism and access to Central Asia . Russia , Ukraine , Kazakhstan , Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan are India’s major trading partner.
Unipolar World : –
🔹 Unipolarity means that there is a sole superpower that is dominant in the international system. Unipolarity means that at present the USA is the only on its military powar and economic prowess , but also on its cultural presence. It means the domination of single power in the world example USA in world politics.
New World System : –
🔹 In August 1990 , Iraq invaded Kuwait and captured it and disturbed the peace of the Gulf region . The entire international community appealed to Iraq to free Kuwait , but all diplomatic efforts to accept Iraq failed. As a result , the United Nations declared Iraq an invader and liberated Kuwait. It is a dramatic turn for the United Nations that after the Cold War era , the United Nations was able to decide on the Iraq matter so easily , US President George Bush described it as the ‘ New World System “.
Middle East Crisis ( First Gulf War ) : –
🔹 In August 1990 , Iraq invaded Kuwait , occupying and subsequently annexing it . After a series of diplomatic attempts failed at convincing Iraq to quit its aggression . the United Nations mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force . A massive coalition force of 660,000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it in what came to be known as the First Gulf War.
Operation Desert Storm : –
🔹 When in 1990 , Iraq led by Saddam Hussein invaded and captured Kuwait , United Nations gave its permission to use force to liberate Kuwait. Combined 34 countries and a huge force of 6,60,000 soldiers of army waged a campaign against Iraq and defeated it. This military operation was named as ” Operation Desert Storm ” . It is also called ” First Gulf War ” .
Attack on US Embassy : –
🔹1998 The US Embassy in Kenya ( Naroni ) was attacked and also US embassy in Dere Salaam ( Tanzania ) was also attacked. for the attack was attributed to the terrorist organization ” Al Qaeda “.
Operation Infinite Reach : –
🔹 The second military campaign of the Clinton era was ‘ Operation Infinite Reach ‘. In 1919 , the terrorist organization Al Qaeda bombed the US embassies in Nairobi ( Kenya ) and Dare Salaam ( Tanzania ). The bombings were based on radical Muslim views. Its culmination was ‘ Operation Infinite Reach ” .
🔹 Attacks were carried out by cruise missiles in Afghanistan and Sudan targeting Al Qaeda’s camps. It also targeted some cities or civilian areas. In this regard , America did not even care about international laws and the permission of the United Nations.
11 September ( 9/11 ) : –
🔹 In America’s modern day cycle , 9/11 is considered to be the darkest and most . unfortunate day. On this day , 19 hijackers from various Arab countries took possession of four American commercial aircraft after a few minutes of flight.
🔹 Two aircraft crashed into the southern tower on the north side of the World Trade Center in New York. The third plane hit the ‘ Pentagon ‘ in Arlington , Virginia. The Pentagon is the headquarters of the US Department of Defense. The fourth plane was to hit the main building of the US Congress. But it fell on a farm in Pennsylvania. This attack is known as 9/11.
Operation Enduring Freedom : –
🔹 Operation Enduring Freedom was started on 7 October 2001. This operation was run by America against those who were suspected of 9/11 . In this operation , the main targets were al – Qaeda and the Taliban regime of Afghanistan. The objective was to break the communication system of Al – Qaeda and eliminate all the threats that were promoting terrorism in association with terrorist groups.
🔶 Second Gulf War ( Iraq War ) : –
🔹 The US propaganda system spread the news around the world that the President of Iraq has kept a stock of very deadly weapons in his country. So , to control it , it has become very important to take action against Iraq.
🔶 Operation Iraqi Freedom : –
🔹 With this propaganda , a front of more than 40 countries was formed in America , which was named as ‘ Coalition of Villains ( Operation Iraqi Freedom ) and waged war against Iraq on March 19 , 2003 under ‘ Operation Iraqi Freedom ‘. The United Nation did not even give permission for this military campaign. Saddam Hussein’s government could not withstand such a massive attack.
🔶 motive behind the attack : –
🔹 After the victory in the war , America did not get the ‘ weapons of mass destruction . This suggests that the purpose of the attack was different , such as the possession of several oil reserves in Iraq and the establishment of a favorite US government in Iraq.
🔹 Despite the victory , where America failed to control Iraq , protests against the US spread. 3000 US soldiers were killed in this war. The number of Iraq soldiers who died was even more . More than 50,000 civilians also lost their lives in this war.
Democratic Politics and Democratization : –
🔶 Democratic Politics : –
🔹 Democratic politics depends on a free flow of information among citizens. groups , candidates for public office , rights of citizens and political parties. Democratic Politics enhances the dignity of citizens.
🔶 Democratization : –
🔹 Democratization is the process or transition to a more democratic political regime and government. It may also be a transition from an authoritarian regime to a full democracy.
🔹 Democratization makes a government more accountable towards its citizens. It helps to improve the quality of decision making and increases the involvement of citizens in policy making decisions. It also provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.
🔹 The Middle East , North Africa and many other parts of the world still do not have much or have a lesser form of democratic politics as part of their system.
( CIS ) Commonwealth of Independent States : –
🔹 The Commonwealth of Independent States ( CIS ) was founded in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union . The start of systemic reforms in the CIS is closely linked to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. The Commonwealth of Independent States ( CIS has 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics as participants in the CIS .
🔶 Membership :- 12 States – Armenia , Azerbaijan , Belarus , Georgia , Kazakhstan . Kyrgyzstan , Moldova , Russia , Tajikistan , Turkmenistan , Ukraine , and Uzbekistan.
Democratization in CIS- ( Russia.Balkan States , Central Asia States ) : –
🔹 ( presently only 9 countries – Georgia and Ukraine not formally part of it anymore ) Georgia’s 2003 Rose Revolution ‘ and the ‘ Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004 have initiated the democratization process in CIS. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan held parliamentary elections in 2005.
🔹 The process of democratization and the establishment of proper public governance is an ongoing process in this region . Various democracy – building endeavors like more rights for the citizens , holding elections , constitutions are some of the measures being adopted.
Arab Spring : –
🔹 The 21st century saw the emergence of new developments for democratic systems and democratization in West Asian countries . A similar phenomenon is known as the ‘ Arab Spring , which began in 2009.
The Beginning of The Arab Spring ( Tunisia )
🔹 The Arab Spring started in Tunisia , where people started their struggle against corruption , unemployment and poverty. This struggle turned into a political movement Because people were assuming the result of autocratic di pr dictatorship of troubles. Demands for democracy that started in Tunisia and spread to the dominated Arab countries of West Asia.
Spread of Arab Spring in other countries : –
🔹 Hosni Mubarak , who had been in power in Egypt since 1979 , also disintegrated due to the huge democratic demonstration. Additionally , the impact of the Arab Revolution can be seen in Arab countries such as Yemen , Bahrain , Libya and Syria , where protests by the people led to a democratic awakening in the region.
Immediate causes of Arab Spring : –
- It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 following ( a fruit seller ) Mohamed Bouazizi’s self – immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment.
- The wave began when protests in Tunisia and Egypt toppled their regimes in quick succession , inspiring similar attempts in other Arab countries . A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring in these countries.
- These protests were against corruption , wanting increased political participation. They brought about greater economic equality.
- Social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the Arab world , as new protests appeared in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries.
- In 2019 , multiple uprisings and protest movements in Algeria , Sudan , Iraq , Lebanon. and Egypt have been seen as a continuation of the Arab Spring. In all these countries protests , anti- government rallies , sit – ins , and strike were organised.
- As of May 2019 , only the uprising in Tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance.
Consequences of Arab Spring : –
- Not every country saw success in the protest movement and demonstrators expressing their political and economic grievances were often met with violent crackdowns by their countries ‘ security forces.
- In some countries leadership changed and regimes were held accountable.
- Overthrow of the President Ben Ali and resignation of the prime minister in Tunisia.
- In Algeria , the 19 year old emergency was lifted.
- In Jordan , King Abdullah dismissed the Prime minister and his cabinet.
- Economic concessions were made by the rulers in Saudi Arabia and Oman.
- Overthrow of the President Hosni Mubarak who was later convicted of corruption and ordered to stand trial for ordering the killing of protesters.
- This uprising has resulted in civil war and overthrow of the Government in Tunisia , Egypt and Libya.
Outcome of the Arab Spring : –
- In the aftermath of the Arab Spring in various countries , there has been a wave of violence and instability.
- The long – term effects of the Arab Spring are yet to be seen.