12 Class Political Science Chapter 6 International Organisations Notes
|Chapter Name||International Organisations|
Class 12th Political Science Chapter 6 International Organisations Notes here we will be learn about Principal Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion etc.
International organizations : –
🔹 International organizations are those organizations whose members, scope, nature, role and extent are on a global scale. International organizations are broad in their objectives. Those who play an important role in resolving disputes at the international level and in establishing peace and security and in creating a cordial environment between different countries.
Why do we need International Organizations ?
- To help the countries cooperate for better living conditions for all.
- To help with the matters of wars into peace.
- To cooperate for issues like global warming , environmental issues etc.
- To work on eradication of serious diseases by using inoculating or vaccination their population.
- Help to produce information and ideas about how to cooperate.
- Provide mechanism , rules and bureaucracy to help members have more confidence that costs and benefits will be fairly divide.
Major International Organization : –
- United Nations organisation
- world Bank
- world trade organization
- International Monetary Fund
- Amnesty International
- human rights watch
UNO ( United Nations Organization ) : –
- Founded :- 24th October 1945
- HQ :- New York
- Official Languages :- Arabic , Chinese , English , French , Spanish , Russian
- Members :- 193 ( Latest Member South Sudan )
- Secretary General :- Antonio Guterres ( Portugal )
- India join UN :- 1945 October 30
- United Nations logo – The emblem has a world map with olive branches around United Nations logo , signifying world peace.
🔹 The United Nations ( UN ) in an intergovernment organization , it was founded at the end of second world war on 24th October 1945. The organisation was set – up through the signing of the United Nations Charter by 51 states on 24th October , 1945. India was also included as one of its founding countries. Now it is composed of 193 member countries. It is indispensable and presents the great hope of humanity for peace and programs.
History of United Nations : –
🔹 The name ” United Nations ” , coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- 1941 August :- Signing of the Atlantic Charter by the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston S. Churchill.
- 1942 January :- 26 Allied nations fighting against the Axis Powers meet in Washington , D.C. , to support the Atlantic Charter and sign the ‘ Declaration by United Nations ‘
- 1943 December :- Tehran Conference Declaration of the Three Powers ( US , Britain and Soviet Union )
- 1945 February :- Yalta Conference of the ‘ Big Three ‘ ( Roosevelt , Churchill and Stalin ) decides to organise a United Nations conference on the proposed world organisation.
- April – May :- The 2 – month long United Nations Conference on International Organisation at San Francisco.
- 1945 June 26 :- Signing of the UN Charter by 50 nations ( Poland signed on October 15 ; so the UN has 51 original founding members )
- 1945 October 24 :- the UN was founded is celebrated as UN Day )
- 1945 October 30 :- India joins the UN.
Need for UNO : –
- The find peaceful solutions to international problems.
- For economic Development of the world.
- To promote international Co – operation.
- To stop war and international Disputes.
- To deal with Natural calamities and Epidemics.
Principal Organs of the United nations Organization : –
🔹 The United Nations ( UN ) has six main organs. Five of them are the General Assembly , the Security Council , the Economic and Social Council , the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat are based at UN Headquarters in New York.
Let us now study about these parts in detail
Security Council : –
- Headquarters :- New York
- Number of members :- 5 Permanent + 10 non Permanent = 15 total members .
🔹 The most powerful part of the united nation is the security council. It has 15 members , America , Russia , China , France and Britain. These 5 members are permanent members and the rest of the members are non – permanent members. Permanent members have veto power.
🔹 India has become UNSC non – permanent member for the eight time since January 2021. Security Council was restructurated only once in 1965. At that time number of its non – permanent members were increased from 6 to 10. Its headquarter is in New York.
Functions of Security Council : –
- To Maintenance of international peace and security.
- Can take military actions if required.
- Elect the judges of international court of justice.
- Security council can apply economic sanction also to stop any aggression.
Total number of members in Security Council : –
🔹It has a total of 15 members , in which there are five permanent members and ten non-permanent members.
🔶 Five permanent members :- America, Russia, Britain, France and China.
Difference between permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council : –
🔶 Permanent Member : –
- Permanent members are permanently elected to the Security Council.
- They have veto power.
- Their number is five.
- They play an important role in all decisions of the Security Council.
- They Can block any decision of the Security Council.
🔶 non-permanent members : –
- They are elected to the Security Council for only two years.
- They do not have veto power.
- Their number is 10.
- Their role is not as important as that of the permanent members.
- They cannot prevent any decision of the Security Council.
Veto power : –
” Veto power ” refers to the power of the permanent member to veto ( Reject ) any resolution of Security Council.
🔶 Use of veto power by May 2022 : –
- America = 82 times
- China = 17 times
- Russia = 122 times
- France = 16 times
- UK = 29 times
Eligibility for permanent membership of UN Security Council : –
🔹 In view of these growing demands for the restructuing of the UN , on 1st January 1997 , the UN Secreatry General Kofi Annan initiated an injury into how the UN should be reformed . Consequently few following criteria were suggested for a new member countries to be included in UNSC :-
- A major economic power.
- A major military power.
- A substamtial contributor to the UN budget.
- A big nation in terms of its population.
- A democratic nation.
- Country which repersents worlds diversity in terms of geography , economic systems and Culture.
Need for reforms in Security Council : –
🔹 In 1992 , the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution. The resolution reflected three main ccomplaints : –
- UNSC no longer reprsents contemporary political realities ,
- Its decisions reflect only western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.
- It lacks equitable representation.
General Assembly : –
- Headquarters :- New York
- Number of members :- 193
🔹 It is the main deliberative organ of the United Nations . It is composed of representatives from all member states , each of which has one vote. All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly , making it the only UN body with universal representation. It also plays a significant role in the process of standard – setting and the codification of international law.
🔶 Sessions :- The assembly meets in Regular session ( annually from Sep to Dec ) , Special session and Emergency Special Session ( within 24 hours ) at the request of UN security council or majority of members or one – member state if the majority of states concur .
🔶 Appointments by UNGA :- It appoints Secretary General of UN based on the recommendations given by Security Council.
🔹 The mandate of UNGA is to discuss , debate , and make recommendations on subjects pertaining to international peace and security , including development , disarmament , human rights , international law , and the peaceful arbitration of disputes between nations.
Secretariat : –
- Headquarters :- New York
- Number of members :- Secretary General + Staff
🔹 The United Nations Secretariat carries out the day – to – day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organisation’s other main organs. The Secretary General is the head of the Secretariat , who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five – year renewable term. UN staff members are recruited internationally and locally , and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world.
International Court of Justice : –
- Headquarters :- The Hague, Netherlands (Peace Palace)
- Number of members :- 15
🔹 The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its seat is at the Peace Palace in The Hague ( Netherlands ). It is the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations not located in New York ( United States of America ).
🔹 The Court’s role is to settle , in accordance with international law , legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
🔹 The Court is composed of 15 judges , who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. It is assisted by a Registry , its administrative organ. Its official languages are English and French.
How the Court Works ?
🔹 The Court may entertain two types of cases : legal disputes between States submitted to it by them ( contentious cases ) and requests for advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by United Nations organs and specialized agencies ( advisory proceedings ).
🔹 In order to ensure a degree of continuity , one third of the Court is elected every three years. Judges are eligible for re – election. Should a judge die or resign during his or her term of office , a special election is held as soon as possible to choose a judge to fill the unexpired part of the term.
Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC ) : –
- Headquarters :- New York
- Number of members :- 54
🔹 It was established in 1945. It is the place where the world’s economic social and environmental challenges are discussed and debated and policy recommendations issued.
🔹 It has 54 members , which are elected by the General Assembly for a three – year term. Seats in the council are allocated based on geographical representation. 11 of them are allotted to Asian states. For the nations to be the elected as members of ECOSOC for a three – year term , it needs 2/3rd majority of UN General Assembly votes. Each member of the council has one vote and generally voting in the council is by simple majority.
Trusteeship Council : –
- Headquarters :- New York
- Number of members :- 15
🔹 It was formed to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories that had been placed under the administration of Member States , and to prepare the territories for self – government and independence. By 1994 , all Trust Territories had attained self – government or independence , with the last nation being Palau.
🔹 So , UN suspended its operation on 1 November 1994 , and it continues to exist only on paper. By a resolution adopted in May 1994 , the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required by its decision or the decision of its President , or at the request of a majority of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council. Its future role and existence remain uncertain.
Secretary General : –
🔹 The secretary General of the United Nations is the representative of the United Nations. The present secretary General of the United Nations is Antonio Guterres from Portugal.
🔶 UN Secretary General :-
|Trygve Halvdan Lie||Norway||2 February 1946 – November 1952|
|Dag Hammarskjold||Sweden||10 April 1953 – 18 September 1961|
|U Thant||Burma||3 November 1961 – 31 December 1971|
|Kurt Waldheim||Australlia||1 January 1972 – 31 December 1981|
|Javier Perez de Cuellla||Peru||1 January 1982 – 31 December 1991|
|Boutros Boutros Ghali||Egypt||1 January 1992 – 31 December 1996|
|Kofi Annan||Ghana||1 January 1997 – 31 December 2006|
|Ban Ki – moon||South Korea||1 January 2007 – 31 December 2016|
|Antonio Guterres||Portugal||1 January 2017 – Present|
India Contribution in the United Nations : –
🔹 India has always been a consistent nation in giving contribution in United Nations. On the matter of Security , Disarmament ,, South Korea crisis , Suez canal and the Iraq invasion on Kuwait , Indian has always given it’s balanced opinion.
🔹 Apart from it , India has played an important role in human rights protection , against colonialism and against racism. It has also promoted and become a part of the educational , financial and cultural activities of United Nations.
Points defending the Permanent Membership of India in United Nations : –
- Big nation on the basis of largest population.
- Stable democracy and obligations towards human rights.
- A rising economy.
- A continuous support to the United Nations’s monetary budget.
- India’s role in peace.
Reason Why India should be given a permanent membership in the U.N Security Council : –
- Second most populous country.
- World’s largest democracy.
- Participated in all the initiatives of the UN.
- Regular financial contribution.
- Participated in the peace keeping force.
- Economic emergence on the world stage.
Measures to make the United Nations relevant in a Uni – polar world : –
- Constitution of Peace Establishment Commission.
- Establishment of Human Rights Council.
- Agreed to achieve the development goal.
- Formation of stable democracy in all countries.
- Elimination of the terrorism.
Reform of the UN After the Cold War : –
- Two basic kinds of reforms face the UN : reform of the organisation’s structures and processes and a review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation.
- US became the and strongest power. Economies of Asia were growing at an unprecedented rate.
- The Soviet Union has collapsed.
- The relationship between Russia , the successor to the Soviet Union and the US is much more cooperative.
- Many new countries have joined the UN ( as they became independent from the Soviet Union or former communist states in Eastern Europe ).
- A whole new set of challenges confronts the world ( genocide , civil war , ethnic conflict , terrorism , nuclear proliferation , climate change , environmental degradation , epidemics ).
Reform of Structures and Processes : –
🔹 In 1992 , the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution. The resolution reflected three main complaints : –
- The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
- Its decisions reflect only Western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.
- It lacks equitable representation.
Jurisdiction of the UN : –
🔹 A meeting was held in September 2005 to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the United Nation and to review the situation.
🔹 Steps include establishment of Human Rights Council , creation of democracy fund etc.
Key Agencies of UNO : –
🔹 The UN has various structures and agencies. The conflicts between the states are discussed both in General Assembly and Security Council.
🔹 Many agencies deal with the social and economic issues such as the
- World Health Organisations ( WHO ) ,
- United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP ) ,
- United Nations Human Rights Commission ( UNHRC ) ,
- United Nations High Commission for Refugees ( UNHCR ) ,
- United Nations Children’s Fund ( UNICEF )
- International Labour Organization ( ILO )
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
- United Nations Educational , Scientific and Cultural Organisation ( UNESCO ) among others.
United Nations Educational , Scientific and Cultural Organisation ( UNESCO ) : –
🔹 The United Nations Educational , Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) was established on 4 November 1946. With its headquarter in Paris , France. UNESCO is a special body of the United Nations whose main objective is to promote education , natural science , society and anthropology , culture and communication. During past several years , the special work done by UNESCO has been to promote literacy. technical and educational training and independent media etc. all across its member nations.
United Nations Children’s Fund ( UNICEF ) : –
🔹 The United Nations International Childern’s Emergency Fund ( UNICEF ) was established in 1946 by the United Nations General Assembly as body whose main task to collect emergency funds for children and to help in their development work all across the world.
🔹 Apart from this , UNICEF helps and encourages the works that promote children’s health and better life in all parts of the world. With its headquarter in New York , United States , UNICEF has been working successfully in almost an 193 countries of the world.
International Labour Organization ( ILO ) : –
🔹 The International Labour Organization ( ILO ) , founded in October 1919 with its headquarter in Geneva , Switzerland is a body of the United Nations which aims to promote efficient conditions of social justice and work for workers through international labour standards at the global level.
🔹 In addition , there is an incentive for women and male worker , to engage in productive work and to create safety , parity and self – respectful conditions for them at the workplace.
World Health Organisations ( WHO ) : –
🔹 WHO is Known as World Health Organization. It was founded on 7th April 1948. 7th April is celebrated as the World Health Day every year. Its headquarter is in Geneva , Switzerland. Its present head is Tedros Adhanom.
🔶 Objective of W.H.O : –
- To prevent all communicable disease.
- To develop health facilities.
- To check epidemics.
- To monitor public health risks.
The Non Government Orgnisations of United Nations : –
🔹 There are other institutions and non Government Organisations that are completely dedicated towards fulfilling the aims of the United Nations.
International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) : –
- Founded in :- 1944
- Headquarter :- Washington D.C. ( U.S.A. )
- Members :- 190 countries (189 UN countries and Kosovo)
- India and IME :- India joined the IMF on December 27 , 1945 , as one of the IMF’s original members.
🔹 This organization promotes the financial balance of States on the international platform and it helps countries in getting financial and technological assistance.
World Bank : –
- Founded in :- 1945
- Headquarters :- Washington D.C. ( U.S.A. )
- India and World Bank :- India was one of the 17 countries , prepared the agenda for the Bretton Woods Conference ( June 1944 ) , it is al founding member of WB.
🔹 It provides basic structure and promotes balance to the development of Human Resources , agriculture and rural development and environment protection.
World Trade Organisation : –
- Founded in :- 1 January 1995
- Headquarters :- Geneva , Switzerland
- Members :- The WTO has 164 members and 22 observer governments. Liberia became the 163rd member on 14 July 2016 , and Afghanistan became the 164th member on 29 July 2016.
- India and WTO :- India has been a WTO member since 1 January 1995 and a member of GATT since 8 July 1948.
🔹 This international organisation makes rules of the international trade. The goal is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.
International Atomic Energy Agency : –
- Founded in :- 29 July 1957
- Headquarters :- Vienna , Austria
- Membership :- 175 Member States
- India and IAEA :- India is a member of IAEA in 1957
🔹 This Agency promotes the minimal and productive use of Atomic Energy. It also focuses on the non – use of Atomic Energy in military confrontations.
Amnesty International : –
- Founded :- 1961
- Headquarters :- London
🔹 Amnesty international is an NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights.
🔶 Function : –
- Protection of human rights across the world.
- Publish report to prevent and to end the human right violations
Human Rights Watch : –
- Founded :- 1978
- Headquarters :- New York City, U.S.
🔹 This organization is known for his advoeacy and promotion of human rights on the international platform.
International Red Cross Society : –
- Founded :- 1863
- Headquarters :- Geneva, Switzerland
🔹 This society helps the poor victims of wars and internal conflicts. It also tries to stop the usage of weapons for violence.
Green Peace : –
- Founded :- 1971
- Headquarters :- Amsterdam, Netherlands
🔹 This non Government Organisation was established in 1971. It creates awareness among states for the sensitivity towards the environment and tries to make laws for environment protection at the International platform.
The Cold War Era ( Deleted )
The End of Bipolarity
US Hegemony in World Politics ( Deleted )
Contemporary Centres of Power
Contemporary South Asia
Security in the Contemporary World
Environment and Natural Resources