Class 12 history chapter 13 notes, Mahatma gandhi and the national movement notes

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Mahatma gandhi and the national movement notes: Class 12 history chapter 13 notes

ClassClass 12
ChapterChapter 13
Chapter NameMahatma gandhi and the national movement notes
CategoryHistory Notes

Class 12 history chapter 13 notes, Mahatma gandhi and the national movement notes In this chapter we will discuss the Swadeshi Movement, Champaran Kisan Movement, Kheda Satyagraha Movement, Rowlatt Act, Quit India Movement and related topics.

Credit For Nation Building : –

🔹 In the history of nationalism a single individual is often identified with the making of a nation. Thus, for example,

  • we associate Garibaldi with the making of Italy,
  • George Washington with the American War of Independence,
  • and Ho Chi Minh with the struggle to free Vietnam from colonial rule.

🔹 In the same manner, Mahatma Gandhi has been regarded as the ‘Father’ of the Indian nation.

Mahatma Gandhi : –

🔹 We know that Gandhiji was born on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. Gandhiji’s full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. His father’s name was Karamchandra Gandhi and mother’s name was Putli Bai. He was of shy nature even in his childhood. His childhood name was Manu. He is married to Kasturba at a young age (13 years).

Why Is Gandhiji Called The Father Of The Nation?

🔹 Mahatma Gandhi was the foremost, most influential and reverb of all the leaders who participated in the freedom struggle, that is why he is called the ‘Father of the Nation’.

Role of Gandhi ji in Indian National Movement : –

🔸 Champaran Satyagraha (1917): Peasants of Champaran were forced to grow indigo on 3/20th part of the total land (popular as tinkathia system). Gandhi ji organized “Satyagraha” to abolish tinkathia system.

🔸 Ahmadabad Mill strike (1918): Mill owners of Ahmedabad were not increasing wages and bonus. Gandhi ji undertook first hunger strike and owners increased wages of labourers by 35 percent.

🔸 Kheda Satyagraha (1918): There was a drought in Gujarat but peasants were forced to pay revenue. Gandhi ji took up first non- cooperation Movement and forced authorities to collect revenue from those who could afford to pay. Because of these struggles farmers and workers began to accept his leadership.

🔸 Jalian Wala Bagh Massacre (1919): Gandhi ji gave a call for massive Hartal against rowlatt Act but British responded with lathi charge and arrests. A protest was held at Jallianwala bagh. General Dyer surrounded the Bagh and ordered to fire on people.

🔸 Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22): Gandhiji launched Non-cooperation Movement. Thousands of students boycotted government schools and joined national institutions, boycotted foreign goods and burnt at public places. The Movement shook the foundations of British empire in India. Gandhiji withdrew the Movement due to Chaura – Chauri incident.

🔸 Dandi March (1930): Gandhi ji broke the salt law and March started from Sabarmati Ashram to “Dandi”, which encouraged the people.

🔸 Quit India Movement (1942): British send Cripps Missions to persuade the Indians to support the British war efforts. Mahatma Gandhi Called it as “a post dated cheque of a drowning Bank.”

🔹 The All India Congress committee adopted Quit India Resolution and asked Gandhiji to lead it. Gandhiji gave slogan “Do or Die.” Government arrested Gandhiji and other leaders and banned Congress. More than 10,000 people died and British suppressed the Movement.

Gandhi ji Comes to India and as he saw India in 1915 : –

  • Gandhiji saw that the India he left was different from the one he left in 1893.
  • India, though a colony of the British was far more active in political sense in 1915.
  • The Indian National Congress had branches in most major cities and towns.
  • The Swadeshi Movement of 1905-07 had broadened its appeal amongst the middle classes.
  • A group called the Moderates’ preferred a more gradual and persuasive approach.
  • Some of the Moderate leaders were Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
  • Some towering leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai had come into the political scene.
  • These leaders advocated militant opposition to the colonial rule

Gandhiji And Satyagraha In South Africa : –

🔹 After spending 20 years in South Africa, he returned to India in January 1915. In South Africa he went as a lawyer, and in time became a leader of the Indian community in that territory.

🔹 It was in South Africa, that Gandhi started the Non- Violence protest known as Satyagraha. First promoted harmony between religions and alerted upper class Indian to their discriminatory treatment of low castes and women. That is why Chandran Devanesan has remarked, South Africa made Gandhiji a Mahatma.

Swadeshi Movement (1905-07) : –

🔹 The Swadeshi movement in India lasted from 1905 to 1907. Through the Swadeshi movement of 1905-07 it had greatly broadened its appeal among the middle classes. That movement had thrown up some towering leaders.

Major Leaders Of This Movement ( Lal, Bal and Pal ) : –

  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra,
  • Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal,
  • Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab.

🔹 The three were known as “Lal, Bal and Pal”, the alliteration conveying the all-India character of their struggle, since their native provinces were very distant from one another.

Moderate Leaders : –

🔹 Where these leaders advocated militant opposition to colonial rule, there was a group of “Moderates” who preferred a more gradual and persuasive approach.

🔹 Among these Moderates was Gandhiji’s acknowledged political mentor, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, as well as Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who, like Gandhiji, was a lawyer of Gujarati extraction trained in London.

Inauguration of BHU : –

🔹 The inauguration was a very special moment as it was one of the first nationalist university and was funded I by the Indian nobles.

🔹 Mahatma Gandhi used this occasion to express his disappointment over the lack of representation of poor and oppressed.

🔹 He said that the nationalism in India is an elite phenomenon as the interests of poor and oppressed were not being represented.

Gandhi’s Appearance at Banaras Hindu University : –

🔹 The first major public appearance of Gandhiji was at the opening of the Banaras Hindu University in February 1916 where he stressed on the involvement of the peasants and workers in national movement and his own statement of intent towards Indian nationalism.

Importance of the speech of BHU : –

🔹 Gandhiji charged the Indian elite with a lack of concern for the laboring poor.

🔹 Gandhiji chose to remind those present, of the peasants and workers who constituted a majority of the Indian population, yet were unrepresented in the audience.

🔹 The first public announcement of Gandhiji’s own desire was to make Indian nationalism more properly representative of the Indian people as a whole.

Beginning of Satyagraha in India ( in short ) : –

🔸 Champaran Satyagraha : –

  • The first satyagraha was started in Champaran in 1917.
  • Reason : – To obtain the tenure security and freedom of cultivation of crops for peasants.
  • Conclusion : – Champaran agrarian bill was passed which gave relief to the indigo cultivators and land tenants.

🔸 Kheda Satyagraha : –

  • The Kheda Satyagraha was launched in 1918.
  • Reason : – Peasants wanted the remission in taxes because of damage in their harvests.
  • Conclusion : – The poor peasants got remission and those who could afford to pay the tax were allowed to do so.

🔸 Ahmedabad Satyagraha : –

  • Satyagraha was launched in 1918 with the mill workers who were already on strike.
  • Reason : – The workers were demanding better working condition and increased wages.
  • Conclusion : – The wages of workers got increase by 35%.

🔹 Champaran (1917), Ahmedabad and Kheda (1918) marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.

First campaign of Mahatma Gandhi

🔹 At the annual congress held in Lucknow in December 1916, Mahatma Gandhi was approached by a peasant form Champaran and he told Mahatma Gandhi about the harsh treatment the peasants received by the British.

🔹 In 1917, Mahatma Gandhi organized a Satyagraha in Champaran (Bihar) seeking the security of tenure as well as the freedom to grow crops as per their wish.

Campaigns launched by Gandhiji in his home state : –

🔹 Gandhiji was involved in two campaigns in his home state of Gujarat.

🔸 Firstly, he participated in the Ahmadabad textile mill strike of February-March 1918, demanding better working conditions for the textile mill workers.

🔸 Secondly, he joined the peasants in Kheda Satyagraha who demanded remission of taxes from the state following the failure of their harvest. It was in Kheda that Mahatma Gandhi initiate the first Satyagraha revolution.

The Rowlatt Satyagraha ( in short ) : –

🔸 Reason : –

  • Britishers had imposed the “Rowlatt Act over the Indians after the end of first world war 1914-18.
  • Rowlatt act breached the freedom of living of Indians and freedom of press.
  • Gandhiji launched the satyagraha against this Black Law in February 1919.

🔸 During the Satyagraha : –

  • “Rowlatt Satyagraha” was widely popular in North Cand West India where life came to a standstill.
  • The protest were much intense in Punjab.
  • Many Congressmen in Punjab were arrested and Gandhiji himself were detained.

🔸 Conclusion : –

  • The protest ended with the Jallianwala Massacre on 23rd April 1919.
  • The Rowlatt satyagraha made Gandhiji, a national leader.

Rowlatt Act : –

🔹 The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British government in India in March 1919. During the Great War of 1914-18, the British had instituted censorship of the press and permitted detention without trial. Later on the recommendation of a committee chaired by Sir Sidney Rowlatt, these tough measures were continued. The British government named this campaign Rowlatt Act.

The Rowlatt Satyagraha Against Rowlatt Act : –

🔹 Gandhiji called for a country wide agitation against the Rowlatt Act. Gandhiji started Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act which elevated Gandhiji as a national leader.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre : –

🔹 The situation in the province grew progressively more tense, reaching a bloody climax in Amritsar in April 1919.

🔹 A British Brigadier ordered his troops to open fire on a nationalist meeting. More than four hundred people were killed in what is known as the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

What was the Khilafat Movement?

🔹 The Khilafat Movement, (1919-1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, that demanded the following:

  • The Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire,
  • the jazirat-ul-Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under Muslim sovereignty,
  • and the Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to enable him to defend the Islamic faith.

🔹 The Congress supported the movement and Mahatma Gandhi sought to conjoin it to the Non-cooperation Movement.

Non Cooperation Movement ( in short ) : –

🔸 Meaning of Non-Cooperation : – Renunciation of Voluntary Association.

🔹 The success of Rowlatt satyagraha, the massacre at Jallianwala Bagh and Britishers retracting from their promise all these inspired Gandhiji for non-cooperation movement. The movement started in 1 August 1920 where Gandhiji coupled non- cooperation with Khilafat movement to unite Hindus and Muslims.

🔹 The students and Lawyers participated enthusiastically in non-cooperation movement. The government institutions were boycotted. The working class went on strike; Forest dwellers violated the forest laws.

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