Alternative centres of power class 12 notes, class 12 political science chapter 4 notes

Alternative Centres of power Class 12 Notes: class 12 political science chapter 4 notes

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
ChapterChapter 4
Chapter NameAlternative Centres of power
CategoryPolitical Science

Alternative centres of power class 12 notes, class 12 political science chapter 4 notes here we will be learn about Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS. Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India, Japan and South Korea etc.

New Centers of Power : –

🔹 With the end of bipolarity in the world politics , it became evident that new centres of economic and political power could limit the powers of US dominance. The New Centres of Power emerged in the form of European Union ( EU ) , the Association of South – East Asian Nations ( ASEAN ) in Asia , SAARC , BRICS in different parts of the world.

🔹 These organisations tried to transform the countries in the region into prosperous economies. On the other hand , rise of China’s economy has also made a great impact on the world politics.

Marshall Plan : –

🔹 America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy. Since Marshall was America’s Foreign Minister at that time , it came to be known as the Marshall Plan. Under this plan , the organisation for European Economic Cooperation ( OECC ) was established to channel aid to the western European states.

🔹 It became forum where the Western European states began to cooperate on trade and economic issues. An active initiation of this organisation brought success in paving a path for improving economy and for construction and development of Western European countries , which were ruined in the Second World War.

🔶 Organizations : – European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS 🔶

The Council of Europe : –

🔹 The Council of Europe established in 1949 for political coorperation. Six west European countries France , West Germany , Italy , Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the treaties of Rome on 25th March 1957 establishing the European Economic Community ( EEC ) and the European Atomic Community.

Formation of European Union : –

🔹 On February 7 , 1992 The Treaty of Maastricht signed establishing the European Union ( EU ).

The European Union : –

🔹The European Union is a regional organization of European countries. The European Union was established in 1992. The European Union has its own flag, anthem and foundation day. European countries have their own currency, which is called ‘Euro’, new members are constantly added to the EU, so that we can find out how influential the EU is. It has nuclear weapons. The European Union has the largest army in the world.

Note: – The European Union tried to make its own constitution in 2003 but failed in it.

Aim of the formation of the European Union : –

  • To create a Common foreign and security policy.
  • cooperation on Justice and Home Affairs.
  • Creation of a single currency.
  • Visa free travel.

The members of European Union : –

🔹 The total number of countries has been expanded 28 after the involvement of Bulgaria and Romania on 1st January. 

🔹 Following are the names of member countries included in European Union : – 1. Sweden , 2. Finland , 3. Denmark , 4. Estonia , 5. Latvia , 6. Lithuania , 7. Netherlands , 8. Ireland , 9. United Kingdom , 10 . Poland , 11. Belgium , 12. Germany , 13. Luxembourg , 14. Czech Republic , 15. Slovakia , 16. France , 17. Austria , 18. Hungary , 19. Slovenia , 20. Italy , 21. Spain , 22. Portugal , 23. Malta , 24. Greece , 25. Cyprus , 26. Bulgaria , 27. Croatia , 28. Romania .

🔸 Older members :- Astria , Belgium , Denmark , Finland , France , Germany . Greece , Ireland , Italy , Luxembourg , Malta , Nelherland , Portugal , Spain Sweden.

🔸 New members :- Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , Poland , Czech , Romania , Slovakia , Hungry , Croatia , Slovenia , Bulgaria , Cyprus , United kingdom. 

🔹 which had been a founding member of the European Union , left the organisation in 2020.

The European Union Flag : –

🔹 The circle of gold stars stands for the solidarity and harmony between the people of Europe. It has 12 stars , the number 12 is traditionally the symbol of perfection , completeness and unity.

Economic influence of European Union : – 

🔹 World’s second biggest economy with the GDP of more than $ 17 trilllion in 2016 next to that of the USA.

🔹 In currency , the Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US Dollar. 

🔹 Its share of World Trade is much larger than that of the USA.

🔹 The EU has become more assertive in trade disputes with the USA and China. 

🔹 Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia abd Africa.

🔹 It also functions as an important bloc economic organisations such as the World Trade Organisation ( WTO ).

Political and Diplomatic Influence of EU : –

🔹 One member of EU France , holds permanent seat in the UN Security Council with several non – permanent members.

🔹 The EU is enabled to influence some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s Nuclear Programme.

🔹 Its diplomacy , economic investments and negotiations have been effective with China particularly on issues of human rights and environmental degradation.

Military influence of European Union : –

🔹 The European Union armed forces are the second largest in the world.

🔹 It’s total spending on defence is second after the USA.

🔹 One European Union member State , France also have nuclear arsenals.

🔹 It is also the world’s second most important sourse of space and Communication Technology .

Factors that limit the ability of the European Union : –

  • Some facts that limits the ability of the European Union to act in matters of Foreign Relations and Defence : –

🔹 In many areas its member states have their own foreign relations and defence policies that are often at odds with each other. For example Germany and France oppose US attack on Iraq.

🔹 Denmark and Sweden have resisted the Maastricht Treaty and the adoption of the Euro , the common European currency. 

Association of SouthEast Asian Nations ( ASEAN )

🔸 Name of ASEAN ( in English ) :- Association of SouthEast Asian Nations 

🔸 Name of ASEAN ( in Hindi ) :- दक्षिण पूर्वी एशियाई राष्ट्रों का संगठन

🔸 Establishment :- In 1967, five countries signed the Bangkok Declaration to establish ASEAN.

🔸 Founding country :- These countries were Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

🔸 Countries included later :- Over the years , Brunei , Darussalum , Vietnam , Lao PDR , Myanmar and Cambodia joined ASEAN taking it strength to ten.

🔸 ASEAN flag : – The ten stalks of paddy rice represent the 10 South East Asian countries bound together in friendship , and solidarity the circle symbolises.

The objectives of ASEAN : –

🔹 To accelerate economic growth , social progress and cultural development for properous and peaceful community of South – East Asian Nations.

🔹 To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law.

🔹 To create a common market and production base within the ASEAN states and aid social and economic development.

🔸 ASEAN WAY : – Form of interaction that is informal , non- confrontationist and cooperative. 

Three Pillars of ASEAN Community : –

  • ASEAN Socio – Cultural Community
  • ASEAN Security Community
  • ASEAN Economic Community

ASEAN Socio – Cultural Community : –

🔹 The ASEAN Socio – Cultural Community is all about realising the full potential of ASEAN citizens. It is working towards the following aims :-

  • A committed , participative and socially responsible community for the benefit of ASEAN people.
  • A sustainable community that promotes social development and environmental protection.

ASEAN Security Community : –

🔹 The ASEAN Security Community was based on the notion to avoid territorial disputes , so that it would not develop into armed confrontation.

ASEAN Economic Community : –

🔹 ASEAN is principally an economic association , while the ASEAN region is much smaller economy than US , the EU and Japan’s economy is growing much faster. The objectives of ASEAN Economic Community are :- 

  • To create a common market and production base within ASEAN states to aid social and economic development in the region.
  • To improve the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism for resolving economic dispute.

The ASEAN Regional Forum ( ARF ) : – 

🔹 Established in 1994 , it is the organisation that carries out coordination of security and foreign policy.

Relevance of ASEAN : –

🔹 ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area ( FTA ) for investment , labour and services.

🔹 The USA and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTA with ASEAN.

🔹 India signed the FTA with two members – Singapore and Thailand.

🔹 ASEAN is the only regional association in Asia that provides a political forum where ASEAN countries and the major powers can discuss political and security concerns.

South Asian Association for Regional Coorpperation ( SAARC ) : –

🔸 Name of SAARC ( in English )  :- South Asian Association for Regional Coorpperation

🔸 Name of SAARC ( in Hindi ) :- दक्षिण एशियाई क्षेत्रीय सहयोग संगठन

🔸 Establishment :- SAARC was established on December 8,1985 with the signing of the SAARC Charter in Dhaka , Bangladesh.

🔸 Headquarter and Secretariat of SAARC :- Kathmandu Nepal

🔸 Members Country : – India , Bangladesh , Bhutan , Maldives , Nepal , Pakistan , Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. Afghanistan become a member of SAARC at the 13th annual Summit in 2005 .

🔸 observers Countrys :- There are currently nine observers to SAARC namely :- Australia, China, Iran, The European Union, Japan, Mauritius, The United States of America, The Republic of Korea, Myanmar.

Objectives of SAARC : –

🔹 To promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life.

🔹 To accelerate economic growth , social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realise their full potential.

🔹 To contribute to mutual trust , understanding and appreciation of one another’s problem.

🔹 To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries.

SAARC and its Importance : –

🔹 SAARC comprises 3 % of the world’s area , 21 % of the world’s population and 5.21 % of the global economy.

🔹 Creating Synergies SAARC countries have common tradition , dress , food and culture and political aspects there by synergising their actions. SAARC has initiated SAFTA to free trade zones for whole South Asia.

🔹 Common Solutions All SAARC countries have common problems and issues like poverty , illiteracy , malnutrition , natural disasters , internal conflicts , industrial and technological backwardness , low GDP and poor socio – economic condition.

आगे पढ़ने के लिए नीचे पेज 2 पर जाएँ


Legal Notice

This is copyrighted content of GRADUATE PANDA and meant for Students use only. Mass distribution in any format is strictly prohibited. We are serving Legal Notices and asking for compensation to App, Website, Video, Google Drive, YouTube, Facebook, Telegram Channels etc distributing this content without our permission. If you find similar content anywhere else, mail us at We will take strict legal action against them.