Class 12 history chapter 1 notes, Bricks Beads and Bones notes

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Bricks, Beads and Bones Notes: Class 12 history chapter 1 notes

ClassClass 12
ChapterChapter 1
Chapter NameBricks, Beads and Bones
CategoryHistory Notes

Class 12 history chapter 1 notes, Bricks Beads and Bones notes here we will be learn about Harappan Civilization / Indus Valley Civilization and discuss the social and economic life of Harappan people.

  • B. C. ( Before Christ ) – ईसा पूर्व
  • A . D (Anno Domini) – ईसा मसीह के जन्म वर्ष
  • B. P ( Before Present) – आज से पहले

Period of Harappan Civilization : –

🔹 The civilization is dated between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE and The period of the civilization is broadly divided in to three : –

  • The Early Harappan culture (Before 2600 BCE)
  • The Mature Harappan culture (2600 BCE to 1900 BCE)
  • The Late Harappan culture (After 1900 BCE)

Meaning of “culture” : –

🔹 Archaeologists use the term “culture” for a group of objects, distinctive in style, that are usually found together within a specific geographical area and period of time.

Meaning of Archaeologists : –

🔹 An archaeologist is a scientist who studies human history by digging up human remains and artifacts.

Meaning of Archaeology : –

🔹 Study of the remains of past Archaeology means the study of cultures of the past and of periods of history by examining the remains of buildings and objects found in the earth

Harappan culture / Indus Valley Civilization : –

🔹 The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture. This civilization is named after the place called Harappa, where this culture was first discovered. The Harappan Civilization has been dated to between 2600 and 1900 BCE.

🔹 There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area. The Harappan civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures.

Different Name of Harappan Civilization : –

🔸 Harappan Civilization : – This civilization has been named after the place named Harappa, because this culture was first discovered at the place named Harappa.

🔸 Indus Valley Civilization : – The Harappan civilization is often referred to as the Indus Valley Civilization because it developed in the Indus River Valley. The term “Indus Valley Civilization” is used to indicate its geographical location and the significance of the Indus River to the development of this ancient civilization.

🔸 Bronze Age civilization : – The Indus Valley Civilization is called a Bronze Age civilization because the people of this civilization used bronze tools and weapons. The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the first civilizations in the world to use bronze, and this is why it is called a Bronze Age civilization.

Discovery of Harappan Civilization : –

🔹 The Harappan civilization was discovered in the year 1921-22 under the leadership of Sir John Marshall, Dayaram Sahni, and Rakhal Das Banerji.

Major sources of information about Harappan civilization : –

🔹 Sources to know about Harappan civilisation – Buildings, weights, Stones, Blades and Baked bricks, ornaments, sculptures, seals etc.

Expansion of the Harappan civilization : –

🔹 During excavation, remains of Harappan civilization have been found at many places like Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Kalibanga, Ropar, Sanghol, Banavali, Rakhi garhi, Rangpur, Dholavira, Lothal etc.

🔹 On the basis of this, archaeologists have expressed the opinion that the expansion of Harappan civilization extended to Afghanistan, Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Ganga valley in North India.

Some important sites of Harappan civilization : –

🔹 Kalibangan,Lothal,Rakhi Garhi, Dholavira,Rupar, Harappa, Ganeriwala, Chanhudaro, Sutakagen Dor,Mohenjodaro, Amri,Balakot,Kot Diji,Rangpur, Nageshwar, Ganeriwala etc.

Major centers place of Harappan civilization : –

  • Akhnoor and Manda in Jammu,
  • Ropar, Sandhol in Punjab (India),
  • Harappa in Punjab (Pakistan),
  • Rangpur, Lothal, Surkotada, Malwar Rowdi in Gujarat.
  • Kalibangan in Rajasthan,
  • Alamgir pur in Uttar Pradesh,
  • Mitanthal, Vanabali, Rakhigarhi in Haryana,
  • Dabarkot, Sutkakoh, Sutkangedor in Balochistan (Pakistan),
  • Mohenjodaro, Kotdiji, Alimurad, Chanhudaro etc. in Sindh (Pakistan).

Early archaeological cultures : –

🔹 There were several archaeological cultures in the region prior to the Mature Harappan.

🔹 These cultures were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of agriculture and pastoralism, and some crafts.

🔹 The Settlements were generally small, and there were virtually no large buildings.

Economic life of the Harappan people : –

🔹 The economic life of the people of Indus Valley (Harappa) was based on many trades and professions. They earned their livelihood through these professions. The description of these professions is as under:

🔸 1. Agriculture : – The main profession of the Indus Valley people was agriculture. They cultivated land to grow wheat, barley, rice and cotton. They used wooden ploughs for agriculture. They had a good system of irrigation for their fields.

🔸 2. Cattle-Rearing : – The second main profession of the Indus Valley people was cattle-rearing. They mainly reared cow, ox, elephant, goats, sheep and dogs.

🔸 3. Trade : – Trade was the main profession of the Indus Valley people. The towns traded among themselves. They also had trade relations with Afghanistan and Iran.

🔸 4. Industry : – Most of the people were engaged in small business. The craftsmen were quite efficient in making utensils of mud, copper and brass. They also made beautiful ornaments of gold and silver.

Subsistence Strategies of Harappan Civilisation : –

🔹 The main methods of subsistence of the people of Harappan civilization were as follows: –

🔸 Agricultural Products : – products obtained from trees and plants. Grains found at Harappan sites include wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame. Millets are found from sites in Gujarat. Rice are relatively rare.

🔸 Animals : – Animal bones found at Harappan sites include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. Bones of wild species such as boar, deer and gharial are also found.

🔹 The Harappan people got food from a wide range of plant and animal products, including fish. Their food included grains like wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame. From many Harappan sites, charred grains and seeds have also been found. The people also ate rice and millet. Millets are found from sites in Gujarat. Finds of rice are relatively rare.

🔹 Animal bones found at Harappan sites include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. Bones of wild species such as boar, deer and gharial are also found. It is not clear the, whether the Harappans hunted these animals themselves or obtained meat from other hunting communities. Bones of fish and fowl are also found.

Agricultural technologies in Harappan Civilisation : –

  • While the prevalence of agriculture is indicated by finds of grain, it is more difficult to reconstruct actual agricultural practices.

🔹 The Harappans were familiar with the bull. Archaeologists believe that oxen were used for ploughing.

🔹 Moreover, terracotta models of the plough have been found at sites in Cholistan and at Banawali (Haryana).

🔹 Archaeologists have also found evidence of a ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan), associated with Early Harappan levels.

🔹 Archaeologists have also tried to identify the tools used for harvesting.

🔸 Different crops : – In The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to each other, suggesting that two different crops were grown together.

🔸 Irrigation for farming : – Most Harappan sites are located in semi-arid lands, where irrigation was probably required for agriculture. Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan, but not in Punjab or Sind. water reservoirs found in Dholavira (Gujarat) may have been used to store water for agriculture.

The plight of Harappa : –

🔹 Although Harappa was the first site to be discovered, it was badly destroyed by brick robbers.

🔹 As early as 1875, Alexander Cunningham, the first Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), often called the father of Indian archaeology, noted that the amount of brick taken from the ancient site was enough to lay bricks for “about 100 miles” of the railway line between Lahore and Multan. Thus, many of the ancient structures at the site were damaged.

🔹 In contrast, Mohenjodaro was far better preserved.

Mohenjodaro: A planned urban centre

🔹 Mohenjodaro is one of the two main cities of the Harappan civilization. Although Mohenjodaro is the most well-known site, the first site to be discovered was Harappa. The settlement is divided into two sections, one smaller but higher and the other much larger but lower. Archaeologists designate these as the Citadel and the Lower Town respectively.

The Citadel : –

  • The Citadel was small in size.
  • It was built at a height.
  • The Citadel was surrounded by a wall on all sides.
  • This wall alone separated it from the lower Town.

🔹 The Citadel owes its height to the fact that buildings were constructed on mud brick platforms. It was walled, which meant that it was physically separated from the Lower Town.

🔹 It is on the Citadel that we find evidence of structures that were probably used for special public purposes. These include the warehouse – a massive structure of which the lower brick portions remain, while the upper portions, probably of wood, decayed long ago – and the Great Bath.

The Lower Town : –

  • The lower city was larger in size than The Citadel.
  • It was made for ordinary people.
  • It had carefully planned drainage system.

🔹 The Lower Town was also walled. Several buildings were built on platforms, which served as foundations.

Drainage System : –

🔹 One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. If domestic waste water had to flow into the street drains, every house needed to have at least one wall along a street.

🔹 In the Lower Town roads and streets were laid out along an approximate “grid” pattern, intersecting at right angles. It seems that streets with drains were laid out first and then houses built along them.

Drainage System of the Harappans ( in short ) : –

  • One of the striking features of Harappan cities was the well planned drainage system.
  • Every house was connected to the street drains.
  • The drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum.
  • They were covered with big bricks which could be lifted easily to clean the drains.
  • For sewage from the houses, pits were provided at either side of the street.
  • Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning.
  • In smaller settlements such as Lothal, the houses were built of mud bricks and drains were made of burnt bricks.
  • Little heaps of materials mostly sand have frequently been found alongside the drains.
  • This shows that the drains were cleaned at regular intervals.

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