An imperial capital vijayanagara notes; Class 12 history chapter 7 notes
|An imperial capital vijayanagara
Class 12 history chapter 7 notes, An imperial capital vijayanagara notes here we will learn about the Vijayanagara, Hampi and their rulers and governance system.
Meaning of Vijayanagara : –
🔹 Vijayanagara meaning city of victory was the name of both a city and an empire.
Vijayanagara : –
🔹 The empire was founded in the fourteenth century. According to tradition and epigraphic evidence two brothers Harihara and Bukka, founded the Vijayanagara Empire in 1336.
🔹 The rulers of Vijayanagara empire called themselves “Raya”. Vijayanagara was ruled by Sangam, Suluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynasties. The most famous king of Vijayanagara Krishnadeva Raya was from Tuluva Dynasty.
🔹 The Vijayanagara Empire was located on the from the river Krishna in the north to the extreme south of the peninsula.
🔹 Vijayanagara was, famous for markets of spices, clothes and precious stones. People of this empire spokes different languages and followed different religious traditions.
Destruction of vijaynagar : –
🔹 In 1565 the city was sacked and subsequently deserted. Although it fell into ruin in the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries, it lived on in the memories of people living in the Krishna-Tungabhadra doab. They remembered it as Hampi, a name derived from that of the local mother goddess, Pampadevi.
Hampi : –
🔹 Hampi is another name for Vijayanagara Empire. The name Hampi is derived from the local mother goddess, Pampadevi. The local people remember Vijayanagara Empire as Hampi. The remains of Vijayanagara Empire have been found at the modern Hampi in Karnataka.
Sources to know the history of Vijayanagara Empire : –
🔹 Oral traditions, inscriptions, monuments and other records helped historians to reconstruct the history of Vijayanagara Empire.
The Discovery of Hampi : –
🔹 The ruins at Hampi were discovered by an engineer of the East India Company, Colonel Colin Mackenzie in 1800 CE.
🔹 He prepared the first survey map of the Hampi site. The initial information he collected was based on the memories of priests of the Virupaksha temple and the shrine of Pampadevi.
Colin Mackenzie : –
🔹 Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815 he was appointed the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821.
Karnataka samrajyamu : –
🔹 While historians use the term Vijayanagara Empire, contemporaries described it as the karnataka samrajyamu.
Gajapati : –
🔹 Gajapati literally means lord of elephants. This was the name of a ruling lineage that was very powerful in Orissa in the fifteenth century.
Ashvapati : –
🔹 In the popular traditions of Vijayanagara the Deccan Sultans are termed as ashvapati or lord of horses.
Narapati : –
🔹 In the Vijayanagara Empire, the rayas are called narapati or lord of men.
Yavana : –
🔹 It is a sanskrit word used for the Greeks and other people who entered the subcontinent from the North-West.
Portuguese : –
🔹 From 1498 other actors appeared on the scene. These were the Portuguese, who arrived on the west coast of the subcontinent and attempted to establish trading and military stations.
🔹 Their superior military technology, especially the use of muskets, enabled them to become important players in the tangled politics of the period.
Kings and traders ( Trading of horse ) : –
🔹 During this time, warfare depended upon effective cavalry, so the import of horses from Arabia and Central Asia was very important for rival kingdoms. This trade was initially controlled by Arab traders.
🔹 Local communities of merchants known as kudirai chettis or horse merchants also participated in these exchanges.
Trade in Vijayanagar Empire ( Markets in the Vijayanagara Empire ) : –
🔹 Vijayanagar Empire was known for its markets dealing in spices, textiles and precious stones.
🔹 Trade was regarded as a status symbol in those cities who were proud of a wealthy population that demanded high value exotic goods, especially precious stones and jewellery.
🔹 The revenue derived from trade helped in improving the prosperity of the state.
Dynasties And Rulers Of Vijayanagara : –
🔸 Four dynasties ruled Vijayanagar :
- Sangama dynasty
- Tuluva dynasty
- Aravidu dynasty
🔹 Within the polity, claimants to power included members of the ruling lineage as well as military commanders.
🔸 Note :- The rulers of Vijayanagara were called Raya. And the army chief of Vijayanagar was called nayakas or military chiefs.
Dynasties And Rulers Of Vijayanagara ( in detail ) : –
🔹 The Sangama dynasty was the first dynasty that exercised the control till 1485.
🔹 Sangama dynasty were supplanted by the Saluvas, military commanders, who remained in power till 1503 when they were replaced by the Tuluvas. Krishnadeva Raya belonged to the Tuluva dynasty.
🔹 In 1542 AD, the Aravidu dynasty captured the power of Vijayanagara, which remained in power till the end of the seventeenth century.
Krishnadeva Raya and Vijayanagara : –
🔹 Krishnadeva Raya’s rule was known by expansion and strengthening the empire. During this time, the land between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers (the Raichur doab) was acquired in 1512, the rulers of Orissa were brought under the control in 1514 and severe defeats were suffered by the Sultan of Bijapur in 1520.
🔹 Krishnadeva Raya is credited with building some fine temples and adding impressive gopurams to many important south Indian temples.
🔹 He also founded a suburban township near Vijayanagara called Nagalapuram after his mother.
🔹 He was also known for his literacy skills. He composed on statecraft in Telugu known as Amuktamalyada.
Contribution of Krishnadeva Raya in the expansion of Vijayanagara Empire : –
- The contribution of Krishnadeva Raya was:
🔹 Krishnadeva Raya is credited for building some fine temples and adding great looking gopurams to many important South Indian temples.
🔹 Nagalapuram, a suburban township was founded near Vijayanagara by Krishnadeva which was named after his mother.
🔹 He also composed a statecraft in telugu known as Amuktamalyada.
Condition of Vijayanagara after Krishnadeva Raya : –
🔹 After the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529, his successors faced problems created by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs.
🔹 By 1542 control at the centre had shifted to another ruling lineage, that of the Aravidu, which remained in power till the end of the seventeenth century.
🔹 During this period, the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara and of the Deccan Sultanates resulted in shifting alignments. This led to an alliance of the Sultanates against Vijayanagara.
The battle at Rakshasi-Tangadi or Talikota : –
🔹 In 1565, Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara, led the army into battle at Rakshasi-Tangadi also known as Talikota.
🔹 Here Rama Raya’s forces were decisively defeated by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda. The victorious armies looted and destroyed the city of Vijayanagara.
🔹 Within a few years, this city was totally abandoned. Now the focus of the empire shifted to East where the Aravidu dynasty ruled from Penukonda and later from Chandragiri near Tirupathi.
Relationship between the Sultans and the Rayas : –
🔹 The armies of the Sultans were responsible for the destruction of the city of Vijayanagara. Relations between the Sultans and the rayas were also not always hostile despite their religious differences.
🔸 for example : –
- For instance, Krishna Deva Raya supported the people who claimed power in the Sultanates and took the title establisher of the Yavana kingdom.
- Similarly, the Sultan of Bijapur involved to resolve the succession disputes in Vijayanagara, following the death of Krishna Deva Raya.
🔹 The Vijayanagara kings were keen to ensure the stablilit of the Sultanates and vice versa. But was the adventurou policy of Rama Raya who tried to play off one Sultan against another that led the Sultans to combine together and decisively defeat him.
Reasons of the conflict between the Sultans of Deccan and Vijayanagara rulers : –
- The military ambitions of the rulers of vijaya Nagara as well as those of the Deccan Sultanates resulted in shifting alignments.
- IN 1520 sever defeats were inflicted on the Sultan of Bijapur by Krishna Der Raya.
- Relations between the sultans and Rayas were not always or inevitably hostile.
- It was the adventurous policy of Rama Raya who tried to pay off one Sultan against another that led to Sultan to combine together and decisively defeat him.
- Rayas were defeated by sultanales (combined forces of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar & Golkonda) in the bettle of Rakshasi-Tangadi ( Talikota ) in 1565.
The Nayakas in the Vijayanagara Empire : –
🔹 In the Vijayanagara Empire, the nayakas were military chiefs who exercised power and controlled forts and had armed supporters.
🔹 These chiefs often moved from one place to another and many a times were accompanied by peasants looking for fertile land in order to settle.
🔹 The nayakas spoke Telugu or Kannada. Many nayakas were under the control of the kings of Vijayanagara but often rebelled and had to be subdued by military action.
Meaning of Amara : –
🔹 Amara is believed to be derived from the Sanskrit word samara, meaning battle or war. It also resembles the Persian term amir, meaning a high noble.
The Amara-Nayaka System : –
🔹 The amara-nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire. Most of its features were derived from the iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate.
The features of Amara-Nayaka System : –
- The features of this system are as follows:
🔹 The amara-nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to govern by the raya. They collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftspersons and traders in the area.
🔹 They retained part of the revenue for personal use and for maintaining a required group of horses and elephants. Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works.
🔹 These military groups were an effective fighting force which provided Vijayanagara kings to bring the entire Southern peninsula under their control.
🔹 The amara-nayakas sent tribute to the king annually and personally appeared in the royal court with gifts to express their loyalty. Kings occasionally asserted their control over them by transferring them from one place to another.
- During the seventeenth century, many of these nayakas established independent kingdoms. This accelerated the collapse of the kingdom and its structure.