Class 12 political science chapter 1 challenges of nation building notes

12 Class Political Science – II Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building Notes

ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science 2nd book
ChapterChapter 1
Chapter NameChallenges of Nation Building
CategoryPolitical Science

Class 12 political science chapter 1 challenges of nation building notes here we will be learn about Nation and Nation Building. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States. Nehru’s approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of ‘refugee’ Resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Political conflicts over language. Linguistic Organisation of States etc.

Independence of India : –

🔹 After the British rule of nearly 200 years , India became independent on the midnight of 14-15 August 1947 , but with this freedom , the people of the country had to face the partition of the country. In the special session of the Constituent Assembly , the first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru delivered a speech titled as ‘ Tryst with Destiny ‘ .

🔸 At the time of the freedom struggle , two things were agreed upon : –

  • After independence , the country will be governed by democratic method.
  • The government will work for all sections of society.

Challenges of New Nation : –

🔹 Mainly there were 3 types of challenges in front of India : –

🔸 1. The challenge of unity and integrity :- India was almost equal to any continent in its size and diversity , where the followers of different language cultures and religions lived , the challenge was to unite them all.

🔸 2. Establishment of democracy :- Representative democracy based on parliamentary rule is adopted in India and fundamental rights and voting rights given to every citizen as per our Indian constitution.

🔸 3. Development based on equality :- Development and well being of the entire society and not of some sections. Special protection is given to socially disadvantaged groups and religious and cultural communities.

Two nation theory : –

🔹 Theory of two separate nations one for Hindus ( INDIA ) and one for Muslims ( Pakistan ).

Legacy of Partition : Challenge of Refugee and Resettlement : –

🔹 The two nation – states emerged on 14th – 15th August , 1947 i.e. India and Pakistan. This was a result of partition the division of British India into India and Pakistan. As per the two – nation theory propounded by the Muslim League , India consists of two people i.e. Hindus and Muslims.

Partition of India : –

🔹 The Muslim League argued for adopting the two – nation theory that India is not a nation of one community but rather of two two communities called Hindus and Muslims and that is why the Muslim League demanded a separate country for Muslims i.e. Pakistan. 

The main problems faced by the partition of India : –

🔸 First problem: To divide the regions on the basis of religious majority : –

🔹 On the basis of the population of Muslims , Pakistan will include two areas , West Pakistan and East Pakistan and between them there will be a large expansion of Indian territory. 

🔸 Second problem: People not agreeing to join Pakistan : – 

🔹 Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan , leader of the North West Frontier Province , popularly known as Frontier Gandhi , was not ready to go to the Muslim – dominated region of Pakistan , he was completely against the two nation theory. 

🔸 Third problem: Punjab and Bengal : –

🔹 In the Muslim majority provinces of British India , Punjab and Bengal had a majority non – Muslim population , in such a way , these provinces were divided on the basis of religious majority number of districts or administrative level. 

🔹 The partition of India was done only on the basis of religion , so on both side minority groups were in a dilemma as to what would happen to them whether they would be citizens of India or Pakistan.

🔸 Fourth problem: The problem of minorities ( rehabilitation Problem ) : –

🔹 The plan of partition of India did not say that the displacement of minorities from both parts would also happen , Hindu Muslim riots broke out in the areas of both the countries before the partition. To save their lives , they had to come from there to East Punjab that is India.

🔹 India’s was not only divided geographically. Rather the parition of India’s wealth was also done. India got the problem of resettlement of refugees as inheritance. The resettlement of people was very restrained in a very practical manner. Firstly , a rehabilitation ministry was created for the rehabilitation.

Consequences of Partition : –

  • Transfer of population 
  • Problem with minorities on both side 
  • Exploitation of women and children 
  • Division of properties

🔹 Partition caused massacre on both sides of the border. People of one community were killed and injured by people of other community in the name of religion. 

🔹 Cities such as Lahore , Amritsar and Kolkata were divided into Communal Zones where Hindus , Sikhs and Muslims avoided going into each other ‘ area.

🔹 Minorities on both sides of border were forced to abandon their homes and take shelter in refugee camps.

🔹 Thousands of women were abducted and raped.

🔹 Partition posed another deeper issue on identity of India on whether it has going to be a Hindu Nation after religion based Partition or not and whether the Government of India would treat Muslim citizens and other religious minorities like Sikhs , Christians , Jains , Buddhist , etc . equally or not.

Mahatma Gandhi’s Sacrifice : –

🔹 Mahatma Gandhi did not participate in any of the Independence Day celebrations. Gandhiji had to resort to a fast to bring peace between Hindus and Muslims. His last fast was in January 1948.

🔹 Extremists in both the communities blamed him for their conditions. On 30th January , 1948 Nathuram Vinayak Godse , walked up to Gandhiji and fired three bullets at him killing him instantly.

Kashmir Issue : –

🔹 After the independence and partition of India , the rulers of Princely States were given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or with certain reservations to remain independent.

🔹 Hari Singh , Maharaja of Kashmir believed that by delaying his decision to be a part of either India or Pakistan could help his Princely State remain independent.

🔹 Due to the revolution among his Muslim subjects along the Western borders of the the state, he later signed Instrument of Accession with the Indian Government in October 1947.

Princely states : –

🔹 Before the independence of the princely states , India was divided into two parts ; the number of princely states was about 565.

🔹 Sardar Patel played a historic role in persuading the rulers of the princely states and persuaded almost all princely states to join the Indian Union. Most of the princely states people wanted to join the Indian Union.

🔹 In the backdrop of Partition , the issue of demarcation of various areas was gaining momentum and in such a situation the question of territorial unity and integrity of the country had become the most important. The consent form is called instrument of accession. 

🔹 The merger of the princely states of Junagadh , Hyderabad , Kashmir and Manipur proved to be slightly more effortful than the other princely states.

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel : –

🔹 The first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of India , Sardar Vallabh bhai Patel , emerged as a major leader of the freedom movement after Kheda Satyagraha ( 1918 ) and the Bardoli Saty agraha ( 1928 ). 

🔹 At the time of independence , the problem of integration of princely states was a big challenge for the national unity and integrity of India. Under such difficult times , Sardar Patel undertook the daunting tasks of uniting all 565 princely states of India. 

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States : –

🔹 Known as an ‘ Iron Man ‘ of India , Patel’s approach to the question of the merger of princely states into independent India was very clear. He was not in favour of any compromise with the territorial integrity of India. By his political experience , diplomatic prowess and foresightedness , out of India’s 565 princely states , many had already given their consent to merge with India even before achieving independence.

🔹 Sarder Patel faced key challenges of integration from three states , viz ., Hyderabad , Junagarh and Kashmir. It was under his leadership that Indian forces compelled Hyderabad and Junagarh to merge with India. Keeping well versed with Pakistan’s intentions from Jinnah’s divisive ‘ Two Nation Theory ‘ ,.

🔸 Sardar Patel’s and Kashmir : – Sardar Patel’s opinion on Kashmir was different from other leaders. Like Hyderabad , he also wanted Kashmir’s integration with India through military operations. But due to various reasons , Sardar could not succeed in integrating Kashmir fully with India. 

🔹 However , Sardar will always remain as an astounding leader who combined in himself the features of a true ‘ Nationalist ‘ , ‘ Catalyst ‘ and ‘ Realist ‘ – popularly characterised as NCR in Indian political history.

Merger of Hyderabad : –

🔹 The ruler of Hyderabad was called the Nizam. He signed an agreement with the Government of India to restore the status quo for one year in November 1947. In the mean time movement of the people of hyderabad state started against the Nizam rule.

🔹 Nizam launched a quasi – military force Razakar. The Indian government made Nizam surrender by military action on September 1948. Forced thus the princely state of Hyderabad merged with the Indian Union.

Merger of the princely state of Manipur : –

🔹 In order to keep the internal status of Manipur. The Maharaja Bodhchandra Singh and the Government of India signed an agreement for merger and the election was held.

🔹 Manipur was the first part of India where elections were held in June 1948 by adopting the principle of adult suffrage.

Reorganization of States : –

🔹 The provinces which were formed at that time was according to administrative convenience. But in independent India , there was a demand for the formation of states On the basis of linguistic and cultural simlarity. 

🔹 The political issue of formation of provinces on the basis of language was first included in the Nagpur session of Congress in 1920. 

Formation of Andhra Pradesh State : –

🔹 Telugu speaking people demanded that a new state of. Andhra Pradesh be carved Out of the Telugu speaking areas of Madras province.

🔹 During the agitation , Potti Sriramalu , a senior Congress leader , died after a hunger strike of about 56 days.

🔹 Due to this . in December 1952 the Prime minister declared a separate state named Andhra Pradesh , thus Andhra Pradesh became the first state based on the language.

State Reorganization Commission : –

🔹 In 1953 , the Government constituted a State Reorganization Commission headed by a former Judge of the Supreme Court.

Major recommendations of the Commission : –

  • End the three – stage system.
  • Barring only 3 union territories ( Andaman and Nicobar , Delhi , Manipur ) , the rest of the union territories should he merged with their mmediate states.
  • States should determine the extent of the language spoken there.

Commission report : –

🔹 The Commission presented its report in 1955 and based on this the State reorganization Act 1956 was passed in Parliament which led to creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.

Union Territories which later became states : – 

🔹Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura and Goa etc.

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