Environment and Natural Resources Class 12 Notes: Class 12 political science chapter 8 notes
|Environment and Natural Resources
Environment and natural resources class 12 notes, Class 12 political science chapter 8 notes here we will be learn about Environmental Movements, Global Warming and Climate Change, Conservation of Natural Resources etc.
Environment : –
🔹 The cover that covers the flora and fauna from above the atmosphere is known as Environment.
Environmental Problems : –
🔹 Environmental problems are mainly related to the impacts of human activities on environmental resources. These generally take the form of pollution , depletion or degradation of water , air and soil.
Environmental concerns in global politics : –
- increasing pollution
- hole in ozone layer
- overgrazed grassland
- Water Pollution
- depleting water bodies
- agriculture land losing fertility
- no access to safe water
- natural forests being cut
- coastal pollution
Environmental Concerns in Global Politics : –
🔹 Cultivable land is scarcely expanding , while a large amount of existing agricultural land is losing fertility. Fisheries have been overharvested and grasslands have been overgrazed. Water bodies have been depleted and polluted.
🔹 According to the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report 2016 , 663 million people in poor countries lack access to safe drinking water and 2.4 billion do not have access to sanitation , resulting in the deaths of over three million children per year.
- Natural forests are being cut down and people are being displaced.
- The ozone hole poses a serious threat to ecosystems.
- Coastal pollution is also on the rise around the world.
🔹 International agencies like United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) began holding international conferences to get a more coordinated and effective response to the environmental problems.
Causes of of environmental degradation : –
- Population explosion
- Cutting of forests
- Increasing means of communication
- Misuse of natural resources
Protection of Global Commons : –
🔹 The resources which are not owned by anyone but rather shared by a community are known as commons.
🔹 There are some areas in the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state and hence require common governance by the international community.
🔹 They include earth’s atmosphere , Antarctica , the ocean floor and outer space.
🔹 Cooperation among the global commons is not easy. A number of agreements such as the Antarctic treaty 1959 , the Montreal protocol 1987 , the Antarctic environment protocol 1991 have been signed.
Earth Summit : –
🔹 A conference held in Rio de Janeiro ( Brazil ) in June 1992 on Environment and Development to deal with various environmental problems. Attended by 170 States , thousands of NGOs and many multinational cor -porations.
Agenda 21 : –
🔹 The Earth Summit recommended a list of practices in reference of development to attain sustainability , called Agenda 21.
Common but Differentiated Responsibilities : –
🔹 There is a difference of opinion between the North and the South over the issue of environmental conservation.
🔹 The Northern states want to discuss environmental issues as it stands now. They want everyone to be equally responsible for ecological conservation. Whereas , the Southern countries feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by developed countries.
🔹 In the Rio summit , 1992 , it was accepted that special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development and interpretation of rules of international environmental law. It is called the principle of ‘ common but differentiated responsibilities.
🔹 The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ) also provides that the parties should act on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
🔹 The participants at the convention agreed that most of the current global emissions of greenhouse effect had historically originated in the developed countries and that per capita emissions in developing countries was comparatively low.
🔹 India , China and several other developing states were thus exempted from the requirements of Kyoto Protocol.
Kyoto Protocol : –
🔹 The Kyoto Protocol is a international agreement which has set targets for industrialised states to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan , based on principles set out in UNFCCC.
India’s Stand on Environmental Issues : –
🔹 India has also contributed through various programs of environmental protection : –
- 2002 Kyoto Protocol signed and approved.
- At the G8 countries meeting in 2005 , the emphasis on emission reduction of green house gases by developed countries.
- Use of clean fuel in vehicles under the National Auto Fuel Policy.
- Energy conservation act passed in 2001.
- Renewable energy use was promoted in the Electricity Act in 2003.
- A national mission related to biodiesel is underway in India.
- India wants to form one opinion on the protection of the environment by all nations on the SAARC platform.
- The National Green Tribunal ( NGT ) was established in 2010 for the protection and conservation of environment.
- India is the first country in the world to have separate ministry for the development of renewable energy.
- Low per capita contribution to carbon dioxide emissions US 16 tonnes Japan 8 tonnes , China 6 tonnes and India 1.38 tonnes
- Paris Agreement signed in India on 2 October 2016. By 2030 , India aims to reduce emission intensity by 33 to 35 % compared to 2005.
- In COP -23 India has pledged to create a sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tons of carbon Dioxide by 2030 through plantation and growth of forest area.
- India will act as the head of a global solar coalition of all the countries situated between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
Environmental Movements : –
🔹 Some of the most significant responses to the challenge of environmental degradation has come from groups of environmentally conscious volunteers working in different parts of the world.
- Forest Movement of Southern Countries Mexico , Chile , Brazil , Malaysia , ( ndonesia , Africa and India )
- Movement against the mineral industries in Australia.
- Movement in Thailand , South Africa , Indonesia , China and India against the big dams in which the Save Narmada movement of India is famous.
Movements Against Mineral and Mining Industry : –
🔹 The mineral industry is one of the most powerful industries in the world. This industry faces criticism due to its use of chemicals , its pollution of waterways and land , its clearance of native vegetation , etc.
🔹 For example , the groups and organisations in Philippines campaigned against the Western Mining Corporation ( WMC ) , an Australian based MNC for the extraction of minerals.
Anti – Dam Movements : –
🔹 These movements are pro – river movements for more sustainable and equitable management of river systems and valleys.
🔹 There has been a spurt in mega – dam building in the South , from Turkey to Thailand to South Africa , from Indonesia to China.
🔹 In case of India , Narmada Bachao Andolan is one of the best known anti – dam movements based on the notion of non – violence.
🔹 The first anti – dam movement was launched in North to save the Franklin river and its surrounding in Australia.
Significance of Environmental Movements : –
🔹 Environmental Movements plays a significant role in the society some of them are : –
🔸 Creates Awareness It helps to create awareness among the masses regarding the effects of human activities on the environment.
🔸 Impacts Law – making Process Environmental movements influence the law making body to enacts laws based on environment protection.
🔸 Alternative Form of Energy is Promoted Environmentalists promote the use of alternative forms of energy to solve conflicts between environmental protection and technological developments.
🔸 Recycling Campaigns These movements advocate for re – use and the recycling of non – biodegradable products such as plastics , obsolete electrical equipment and many others.
Global Warming and Climate Change : –
🔹 Global warming is the long – term heating of Earth’s climate system observed since the pre – industrial period due to human activities , primarily fossil fuel burning , which increases heat – trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere.
🔹 Climate change refers to a long – term change in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth’s local , regional and global climates.
Causes of Global Warming and Climate Change : –
🔹 The main causes of Global Warming and Climate change are : –
- Increased use of fossil fuels such as coal , oil and gas to generate electricity , run cars and other forms of transport and power manufacturing and industry.
- Increasingly intensive agriculture
Montreal Protocol , 1987 : –
🔹 Every country in the world ratified the treaty , which required them to stop producing substances that damage the ozone layer , such as chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs ).
🔹 The protocol has succeeded in eliminating nearly 99 per cent of these ozone – depleting substances.
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ) , 1992 : –
🔹 It was ratified by 197 countries including the United States. It is also considered a landmark accord or a first global treaty to explicitly address climate change.
🔹 It established an annual forum , known as the Conference of the Parties or COP , for international discussions aimed at stabilising the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Kyoto Protocol , 2005 : –
🔹 It was adopted in 1997 and came into force in 2005 , as the first legally binding climate treaty.
🔹 It is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut down their greenhouse gas emissions.
Paris Agreement , 2015 : –
🔹 The Paris Agreement requires all countries to set emissions – reduction pledges. Governments set targets known as nationally determined contributions , with the goals of preventing the global average temperature from rising 2°C ( 3.6°F ) above pre – industrial levels and pursuing efforts to keep it below 1,5°C ( 2.7°F ).
🔹 It also aims to reach global net – zero emissions , where the amount of greenhouse gases emitted equals the amount removed from the atmosphere , in the second half of the century.
Conservation of Natural Resources : –
🔹 The sustainable management of the environment and natural resources is vital for political and economic growth as well as for the human well – being.
🔹 When managed well , renewable natural resources , watersheds , productive landscapes and seascapes can provide the foundation for sustained inclusive growth , food security and poverty reduction.
Methods of Conservation : –
🔹 It is necessary to create awareness about the preservation and conservation of resources among people. They should be made aware of the harmful result of large scale destruction of natural resources.
🔹 Afforestation , preventing the felling of immature and young trees and creating awareness amongst the local people about planting and nurturing trees may help in conserving forests.
🔹 Terrace farming in hilly regions , contour ploughing , controlling the shifting cultivation , overgrazing and plugging the gullies are important methods of soil conservation.
🔹 Construction of dams to impound rain water , use of sprinklers , drip or trickle irrigation technique , recycling of water for industrial and domestic purposes will help in conservation of water resource.
🔹 Minerals can be conserved through efficient utilisation , development of better technology of extraction and purification , recycling of minerals and use of substitutes.
🔹 Non – conventional sources of energy example solar , wind or water will have to be developed in order to save conventional sources of energy.
Geopolitics of Resources : –
🔹 The main reason for the expansion of European countries has been the economic exploitation of the subordinate countries , the more resources a country has , the stronger its economy will be , for example : –
🔸 Timber : – Western countries occupied the forests of other countries to build ship so that their navy is strong and foreign trade increase.
🔸 Oil reserves : – After World War , countries that had resources like uranium and oil became important. Development countries Deployed troops on sea lanes for uniterrupted supply of oil.
🔸 Water : – Regional variations and the increasing scaracity of freshwater in some parts of the world points to the possibility of disagreemants over shared water resources as a leading source of conflicts in the 21th century.
🔹 Some thinkers have referred to ‘ water wars ‘ to describe the possibility of violent conflict over this life – sustaining resource . Examples of violence include those between Israel , Syria and Jordan in the 1950s and 1960s over attempts by each side to divert water from the jordan and Yarmuk rivers.
The Indigenous People : –
🔹 The United nation defines indigenous populations as comprising the descendants of people oho inhabited the present territory of a count , at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcame them.
🔹 Indigenous people toda , list more in conformity with their particular social economic and cultural customs and traditions than the institutions of the count , of which the , now form at part.
🔹 Indigenous people occupied areas in Central and toot oh America , Africa , Indla ( where they are known us tribals ) and south east asia.
World council of Indigenous peoples : –
🔹 The world council of Indigenous peoples was formed In 1975. The council became subsequently the first of 11 indigenous NGOs to receive consultative status in the UN.
Indigenous People rights : –
The indigenous voices In world politics call for the admission of indigenous people to the world community as equals.
The Cold War Era ( Deleted )
The End of Bipolarity
US Hegemony in World Politics ( Deleted )
Contemporary Centres of Power
Contemporary South Asia
Security in the Contemporary World
Environment and Natural Resources